Three kinds of peanut seeds and plants (eary, mid, and late maturation) including more than ten varieties having different physiological states and at various developing stages were treated by gamma-ray and fast neutrons. The new 226 accessions of valuable germplasm have been obtained. Some of them are rare germplasm resources which have mutants of high lysine, high ratio of oleic/linoleic and high salt tolerance. These mutants are valuable in the genetic field. Through mutaion breeding the extremely early-maturation variety `Luhua 6` and high yield aeriety `P12` with stronger peg have been developed. At present they are being planted in the large area of China.