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  1. Metal cyanometallates

    Methods are presented for synthesizing metal cyanometallate (MCM). A first method provides a first solution of AXM2Y(CN)Z, to which a second solution including M1 is dropwise added. As a result, a precipitate is formed of ANM1PM2Q (CN)R.FH2O, where N is in the range of 1 to 4. A second method for synthesizing MCM provides a first solution of M2C(CN)B, which is dropwise added to a second solution including M1. As a result, a precipitate is formed of M1[M2S(CN)G]1/T.DH2O, where S/T is greater than or equal to 0.8. Low vacancy MCM materials are also presented.
  2. Battery electrode with metal particles and pyrolyzed coating

    A method is provided for forming a metal battery electrode with a pyrolyzed coating. The method provides a metallorganic compound of metal (Me) and materials such as carbon (C), sulfur (S), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), and combinations of the above-listed materials, expressed as MeXCYNZSXXOYY, where Me is a metal such as tin (Sn), antimony (Sb), or lead (Pb), or a metal alloy. The method heats the metallorganic compound, and as a result of the heating, decomposes materials in the metallorganic compound. In one aspect, decomposing the materials in the metallorganic compound includes forming a chemical reaction between the Me particlesmore » and the materials. An electrode is formed of Me particles coated by the materials. In another aspect, the Me particles coated with a material such as a carbide, a nitride, a sulfide, or combinations of the above-listed materials.« less
  3. Metal cyanometallate synthesis method

    A method is provided for synthesizing metal cyanometallate (MCM). The method provides a solution of AXM1Y(CN)Z; where “A” is selected from a first group of metals and M1 is selected from a second group of metals. The method adds a material including M2 to the solution to form a liquid phase material that may be either a suspension or a solution. M2 is selected from the second group of metals. The method adds acid to the liquid phase material. The addition of acid to the liquid phase material decomposes the M2 material into M2-ions. Simultaneous with the addition of themore » acid, a precipitate of ANM1PM2Q(CN)R.FH2O is formed, where N is in a range of 1 to 2. A variation of the above-described synthesis method is also provided.« less
  4. Anode for sodium-ion and potassium-ion batteries

    A first method for fabricating an anode for use in sodium-ion and potassium-ion batteries includes mixing a conductive carbon material having a low surface area, a hard carbon material, and a binder material. A carbon-composite material is thus formed and coated on a conductive substrate. A second method for fabricating an anode for use in sodium-ion and potassium-ion batteries mixes a metal-containing material, a hard carbon material, and binder material. A carbon-composite material is thus formed and coated on a conductive substrate. A third method for fabricating an anode for use in sodium-ion and potassium-ion batteries provides a hard carbonmore » material having a pyrolyzed polymer coating that is mixed with a binder material to form a carbon-composite material, which is coated on a conductive substrate. Descriptions of the anodes and batteries formed by the above-described methods are also provided.« less
  5. Transition metal hexacyanometallate electrode with water-soluble binder

    A method is provided for fabricating a transition metal hexacyanometallate (TMHCM) electrode with a water-soluble binder. The method initially forms an electrode mix slurry comprising TMHCF and a water-soluble binder. The electrode mix slurry is applied to a current collector, and then dehydrated to form an electrode. The electrode mix slurry may additionally comprise a carbon additive such as carbon black, carbon fiber, carbon nanotubes, graphite, or graphene. The electrode is typically formed with TMHCM greater than 50%, by weight, as compared to a combined weight of the TMHCM, carbon additive, and binder. Also provided are a TMHCM electrode mademore » with a water-soluble binder and a battery having a TMHCM cathode that is made with a water-soluble binder.« less
  6. Reactive separator for a metal-ion battery

    A reactive separator is provided for a metal-ion battery. The reactive separator is made up of a reactive layer that is chemically reactive to alkali or alkaline earth metals, and has a first side and a second side. A first non-reactive layer, chemically non-reactive with alkali or alkaline earth metals, is adjacent to the reactive layer first side. A second non-reactive layer, also chemically non-reactive with alkali or alkaline earth metals, is adjacent to the reactive layer second side. More explicitly, the first and second non-reactive layers are defined as having less than 5 percent by weight (wt %) ofmore » materials able to participate in electrochemical reactions with alkali or alkaline earth metals. The reactive layer may be formed as a porous membrane embedded with reactive components, where the porous membrane is carbon or a porous polymer. Alternatively, the reactive layer is formed as a polymer gel embedded with reactive components.« less
  7. NASICON-polymer electrolyte structure

    A method is provided for forming a sodium-containing particle electrolyte structure. The method provides sodium-containing particles (e.g., NASICON), dispersed in a liquid phase polymer, to form a polymer film with sodium-containing particles distributed in the polymer film. The liquid phase polymer is a result of dissolving the polymer in a solvent or melting the polymer in an extrusion process. In one aspect, the method forms a plurality of polymer film layers, where each polymer film layer includes sodium-containing particles. For example, the plurality of polymer film layers may form a stack having a top layer and a bottom layer, wheremore » with percentage of sodium-containing particles in the polymer film layers increasing from the bottom layer to the top layer. In another aspect, the sodium-containing particles are coated with a dopant. A sodium-containing particle electrolyte structure and a battery made using the sodium-containing particle electrolyte structure are also presented.« less
  8. Electrolyte additives for transition metal cyanometallate electrode stabilization

    A method is provided for the self-repair of a transition metal cyanometallate (TMCM) battery electrode. The battery is made from a TMCM cathode, an anode, and an electrolyte including solution formed from a solvent and an alkali or alkaline earth salt. The electrolyte includes an additive represented as G-R-g: where G and g are independently include materials with nitrogen (N) sulfur (S), oxygen (O), or combinations of the above-recited elements; and where R is an alkene or alkane group. In response to charging and discharging the battery in a plurality of cycles, the method creates vacancies in a surface ofmore » the TMCM cathode. Then, the method fills the vacancies in the surface of the TMCM cathode with the electrolyte additive. An electrolyte and TMCM battery using the above-mentioned additives are also provided.« less
  9. Fabrication method for metal battery electrode with pyrolyzed coating

    A method is provided for forming a metal battery electrode with a pyrolyzed coating. The method provides a metallorganic compound of metal (Me) and materials such as carbon (C), sulfur (S), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), and combinations of the above-listed materials, expressed as MeXCYNZSXXOYY, where Me is a metal such as tin (Sn), antimony (Sb), or lead (Pb), or a metal alloy. The method heats the metallorganic compound, and as a result of the heating, decomposes materials in the metallorganic compound. In one aspect, decomposing the materials in the metallorganic compound includes forming a chemical reaction between the Me particlesmore » and the materials. An electrode is formed of Me particles coated by the materials. In another aspect, the Me particles coated with a material such as a carbide, a nitride, a sulfide, or combinations of the above-listed materials.« less
  10. Battery with an anode preload with consumable metals

    A method is provided for fabricating a battery using an anode preloaded with consumable metals. The method forms an ion-permeable membrane immersed in an electrolyte. A preloaded anode is immersed in the electrolyte, comprising MeaX, where X is a material such as carbon, metal capable of being alloyed with Me, intercalation oxides, electrochemically active organic compounds, and combinations of the above-listed materials. Me is a metal such as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and combinations of the above-listed metals. A cathode is also immersed in the electrolyte and separated from the preloaded anode by the ion-permeable membrane. The cathode comprisesmore » M1YM2Z(CN)N.MH2O. After a plurality of initial charge and discharge operations are preformed, an anode is formed comprising MebX overlying the current collector in a battery discharge state, where 0≦b« less
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"Wang, Long"

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