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Title: Cadmium-free junction fabrication process for CuInSe.sub.2 thin film solar cells

Abstract

The present invention provides an economical, simple, dry and controllable semiconductor layer junction forming process to make cadmium free high efficiency photovoltaic cells having a first layer comprised primarily of copper indium diselenide having a thin doped copper indium diselenide n-type region, generated by thermal diffusion with a group II(b) element such as zinc, and a halide, such as chlorine, and a second layer comprised of a conventional zinc oxide bilayer. A photovoltaic device according the present invention includes a first thin film layer of semiconductor material formed primarily from copper indium diselenide. Doping of the copper indium diselenide with zinc chloride is accomplished using either a zinc chloride solution or a solid zinc chloride material. Thermal diffusion of zinc chloride into the copper indium diselenide upper region creates the thin n-type copper indium diselenide surface. A second thin film layer of semiconductor material comprising zinc oxide is then applied in two layers. The first layer comprises a thin layer of high resistivity zinc oxide. The second relatively thick layer of zinc oxide is doped to exhibit low resistivity.

Inventors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [2]
  1. Lakewood, CA
  2. Golden, CA
  3. Littleton, CA
Issue Date:
Research Org.:
Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, MO (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
872498
Patent Number(s):
5948176
Assignee:
Midwest Research Institute (Kansas City, MO)
Patent Classifications (CPCs):
H - ELECTRICITY H01 - BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS H01L - SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
Y - NEW / CROSS SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES Y02 - TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE Y02E - REDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-83CH10093
Resource Type:
Patent
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
cadmium-free; junction; fabrication; process; cuinse; film; solar; cells; provides; economical; simple; dry; controllable; semiconductor; layer; forming; cadmium; free; efficiency; photovoltaic; comprised; primarily; copper; indium; diselenide; doped; n-type; region; generated; thermal; diffusion; ii; element; zinc; halide; chlorine; conventional; oxide; bilayer; device; according; material; formed; doping; chloride; accomplished; solution; solid; upper; creates; surface; comprising; applied; layers; comprises; resistivity; relatively; thick; exhibit; thick layer; film solar; layer comprised; layer comprises; relatively thick; photovoltaic cells; zinc oxide; material comprising; solar cell; semiconductor material; solar cells; photovoltaic device; semiconductor layer; zinc chloride; fabrication process; film layer; photovoltaic cell; upper region; copper indium; n-type region; thermal diffusion; forming process; comprising zinc; material formed; efficiency photovoltaic; chloride material; device according; junction forming; /136/438/

Citation Formats

Ramanathan, Kannan V, Contreras, Miguel A, Bhattacharya, Raghu N, Keane, James, and Noufi, Rommel. Cadmium-free junction fabrication process for CuInSe.sub.2 thin film solar cells. United States: N. p., 1999. Web.
Ramanathan, Kannan V, Contreras, Miguel A, Bhattacharya, Raghu N, Keane, James, & Noufi, Rommel. Cadmium-free junction fabrication process for CuInSe.sub.2 thin film solar cells. United States.
Ramanathan, Kannan V, Contreras, Miguel A, Bhattacharya, Raghu N, Keane, James, and Noufi, Rommel. Fri . "Cadmium-free junction fabrication process for CuInSe.sub.2 thin film solar cells". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/872498.
@article{osti_872498,
title = {Cadmium-free junction fabrication process for CuInSe.sub.2 thin film solar cells},
author = {Ramanathan, Kannan V and Contreras, Miguel A and Bhattacharya, Raghu N and Keane, James and Noufi, Rommel},
abstractNote = {The present invention provides an economical, simple, dry and controllable semiconductor layer junction forming process to make cadmium free high efficiency photovoltaic cells having a first layer comprised primarily of copper indium diselenide having a thin doped copper indium diselenide n-type region, generated by thermal diffusion with a group II(b) element such as zinc, and a halide, such as chlorine, and a second layer comprised of a conventional zinc oxide bilayer. A photovoltaic device according the present invention includes a first thin film layer of semiconductor material formed primarily from copper indium diselenide. Doping of the copper indium diselenide with zinc chloride is accomplished using either a zinc chloride solution or a solid zinc chloride material. Thermal diffusion of zinc chloride into the copper indium diselenide upper region creates the thin n-type copper indium diselenide surface. A second thin film layer of semiconductor material comprising zinc oxide is then applied in two layers. The first layer comprises a thin layer of high resistivity zinc oxide. The second relatively thick layer of zinc oxide is doped to exhibit low resistivity.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1999},
month = {1}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by spray pyrolysis for solar cell applications
journal, July 1979


A ZnO/p-CuInSe2 thin film solar cell prepared entirely by spray pyrolysis
journal, April 1982