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Title: Carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals

A carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals is provided, in steps including, heating a part formed of boron, chromium, hafnium, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, tungsten or zirconium, or alloys thereof, in an evacuated chamber and then introducing reaction gases including nitrogen and hydrogen, either in elemental or water vapor form, which react with a source of elemental carbon to form carbon-containing gaseous reactants which then react with the metal part to form the desired surface layer. Apparatus for practicing the method is also provided, in the form of a carbide and carbonitride surface treatment system (10) including a reaction chamber (14), a source of elemental carbon (17), a heating subassembly (20) and a source of reaction gases (23). Alternative methods of providing the elemental carbon (17) and the reaction gases (23) are provided, as well as methods of supporting the metal part (12), evacuating the chamber (14) with a vacuum subassembly (18) and heating all of the components to the desired temperature.
 [1];  [2]
  1. (Danville, CA)
  2. (Livermore, CA)
Issue Date:
OSTI Identifier:
United States of America as represented by Department of Energy (Washington, DC) LLNL
Patent Number(s):
US 5580397
Contract Number:
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
carbide; carbonitride; surface; treatment; method; refractory; metals; provided; steps; including; heating; formed; boron; chromium; hafnium; molybdenum; niobium; tantalum; titanium; tungsten; zirconium; alloys; evacuated; chamber; introducing; reaction; gases; nitrogen; hydrogen; elemental; water; vapor; form; react; source; carbon; carbon-containing; gaseous; reactants; metal; desired; layer; apparatus; practicing; 10; 14; 17; subassembly; 20; 23; alternative; methods; providing; supporting; 12; evacuating; vacuum; 18; components; temperature; treatment method; reaction gases; reaction gas; gaseous reactants; gaseous reactant; refractory metal; water vapor; reaction chamber; surface layer; containing gas; form carbon; evacuated chamber; surface treatment; desired temperature; carbonitride surface; alternative methods; alternative method; refractory metals; desired surface; vapor form; containing gaseous; /148/