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Title: Capillary reference half-cell

The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods.
  1. (Kennewick, WA)
Issue Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Battelle Memorial Institute (Richland, WA) PNNL
Patent Number(s):
US 5490916
Contract Number:
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA
Country of Publication:
United States
capillary; reference; half-cell; electrode; intermingling; fluid; affect; performance; time; single; double; junction; submersible; surface; relies; tube; diameter; limits; free; motion; diffusion; placed; near; contact; method; operation; begins; filling; solution; closing; submerged; partially; inserted; intermingle; provides; stable; voltage; potential; periods; reference half-cell; voltage potential; capillary tube; time period; reference electrode; time periods; cell electrode; partially submerged; placed near; free motion; /205/204/