skip to main content
DOE Patents title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals


This disclosure relates to compositions and methods for converting biomass to various chemical intermediates and final products including fuels. Aspects include the depolymerization of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose to a wide slate of depolymerization compounds that can be subsequently metabolized by genetically modified bacterium, and converted to cis,cis-muconic acid. Other aspects include the use of monometallic catalysts for converting the cis,cis-muconic acid to commodity chemicals and fuels, for example adipic acid and/or nylon.

; ; ;
Issue Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Patent Number(s):
Application Number:
Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Golden, CO)
DOE Contract Number:  
Resource Type:
Resource Relation:
Patent File Date: 2015 Jul 20
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Beckham, Gregg T., Johnson, Christopher W., Vardon, Derek R., and Franden, Mary Ann. Biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. United States: N. p., 2018. Web.
Beckham, Gregg T., Johnson, Christopher W., Vardon, Derek R., & Franden, Mary Ann. Biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. United States.
Beckham, Gregg T., Johnson, Christopher W., Vardon, Derek R., and Franden, Mary Ann. Tue . "Biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals". United States.
title = {Biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals},
author = {Beckham, Gregg T. and Johnson, Christopher W. and Vardon, Derek R. and Franden, Mary Ann},
abstractNote = {This disclosure relates to compositions and methods for converting biomass to various chemical intermediates and final products including fuels. Aspects include the depolymerization of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose to a wide slate of depolymerization compounds that can be subsequently metabolized by genetically modified bacterium, and converted to cis,cis-muconic acid. Other aspects include the use of monometallic catalysts for converting the cis,cis-muconic acid to commodity chemicals and fuels, for example adipic acid and/or nylon.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}


Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Biochemistry of coenzyme B12-dependent glycerol and diol dehydratases and organization of the encoding genes
journal, December 1998

δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Genotype and Lead Toxicity: A HuGE Review
journal, July 2001

  • Kelada, Samir N.; Shelton, Erin; Kaufmann, Rachel B.
  • American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 154, Issue 1, p. 1-13
  • DOI: 10.1093/aje/154.1.1

Radical catalysis of B12 enzymes: structure, mechanism, inactivation, and reactivation of diol and glycerol dehydratases
journal, January 2000

  • Toraya, T.
  • Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS), Vol. 57, Issue 1, p. 106-127
  • DOI: 10.1007/s000180050502

A Tetrahydrofolate-Dependent O-Demethylase, LigM, Is Crucial for Catabolism of Vanillate and Syringate in Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6
journal, March 2005

Gas-liquid chromatographic separation of hydroxy monocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids on a fused-silica capillary column
journal, January 1984

Bimetallic catalysts for upgrading of biomass to fuels and chemicals
journal, January 2012

  • Alonso, David Martin; Wettstein, Stephanie G.; Dumesic, James A.
  • Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 41, Issue 24, p. 8075-8098
  • DOI: 10.1039/c2cs35188a

DO-stat fed-batch production of cis, cis-muconic acid from benzoic acid by Pseudomonas putida BM014
journal, January 1995

Succinic Acid: A New Platform Chemical for Biobased Polymers from Renewable Resources
journal, May 2008

  • Bechthold, I.; Bretz, K.; Kabasci, S.
  • Chemical Engineering & Technology, Vol. 31, Issue 5, p. 647-654
  • DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800063

Disruption of Mediator rescues the stunted growth of a lignin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant
journal, March 2014

  • Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Kim, Jeong Im; Tobimatsu, Yuki
  • Nature, Vol. 509, Issue 7500, p. 376-380
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature13084

Solvent fractionation of renewable woody feedstocks: Organosolv generation of biorefinery process streams for the production of biobased chemicals
journal, October 2011

Lignin modification improves fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production
journal, June 2007

  • Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.
  • Nature Biotechnology, Vol. 25, Issue 7, p. 759-761
  • DOI: 10.1038/nbt1316

Deconstruction of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals
journal, July 2011

Engineering plant cell walls: tuning lignin monomer composition for deconstructable biofuel feedstocks or resilient biomaterials
journal, January 2014

  • Ciesielski, Peter N.; Resch, Michael G.; Hewetson, Barron
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 16, Issue 5, p. 2627-2635
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3gc42422g

Adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbon—a critical review
journal, February 2005

The tac promoter: a functional hybrid derived from the trp and lac promoters
journal, January 1983

  • de Boer, H. A.; Comstock, L. J.; Vasser, M.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 80, Issue 1, p. 21-25
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.80.1.21

Emerging catalytic processes for the production of adipic acid
journal, January 2013

  • Van de Vyver, Stijn; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy
  • Catalysis Science & Technology, Vol. 3, Issue 6, p. 1465-1479
  • DOI: 10.1039/C3CY20728E

Environmentally compatible synthesis of adipic acid from D-glucose
journal, January 1994

  • Draths, Karen M.; Frost, John W.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 116, Issue 1, p. 399-400
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja00080a057

Can ionic liquids dissolve wood? Processing and analysis of lignocellulosic materials with 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride
journal, January 2007

  • Fort, Diego A.; Remsing, Richard C.; Swatloski, Richard P.
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 9, Issue 1, p. 63-69
  • DOI: 10.1039/B607614A

Effect of chemical surface heterogeneity on the adsorption mechanism of dissolved aromatics on activated carbon
journal, January 2000

Microbial degradation of aromatic compounds — from one strategy to four
journal, October 2011

  • Fuchs, Georg; Boll, Matthias; Heider, Johann
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology, Vol. 9, Issue 11, p. 803-816
  • DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro2652

Supported Iron Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Sustainable Production of Lower Olefins
journal, February 2012

  • Torres Galvis, H. M.; Bitter, J. H.; Khare, C. B.
  • Science, Vol. 335, Issue 6070, p. 835-838
  • DOI: 10.1126/science.1215614

Purification and characterization of pyrocatechase from the catecholassimilating yeast Candida maltosa.
journal, January 1988

  • Gomi, Komakazu; Horiguchi, Sadayuki
  • Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, Vol. 52, Issue 2, p. 585-587
  • DOI: 10.1271/bbb1961.52.585

Palladium catalysts on activated carbon supports
journal, January 2000

The β-Ketoadipate Pathway And The Biology Of Self-Identity
journal, October 1996

The translational repressor Crc controls the Pseudomonas putida benzoate and alkane catabolic pathways using a multi‐tier regulation strategy
journal, August 2012

Biomass Recalcitrance: Engineering Plants and Enzymes for Biofuels Production
journal, February 2007

  • Himmel, M. E.; Ding, S.-Y.; Johnson, D. K.
  • Science, Vol. 315, Issue 5813, p. 804-807
  • DOI: 10.1126/science.1137016

Direct Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose into Ethylene Glycol Using Nickel-Promoted Tungsten Carbide Catalysts
journal, October 2008

  • Ji, Na; Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Mingyuan
  • Angewandte Chemie, Vol. 120, Issue 44, p. 8638-8641
  • DOI: 10.1002/ange.200803233

Genomic analysis of the aromatic catabolic pathways from Pseudomonas putida KT2440
journal, December 2002

Alkaline Pretreatment of Corn Stover: Bench-Scale Fractionation and Stream Characterization
journal, May 2014

  • Karp, Eric M.; Donohoe, Bryon S.; O’Brien, Marykate H.
  • ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, Vol. 2, Issue 6, p. 1481-1491
  • DOI: 10.1021/sc500126u

Hydrophobic Nanocellulose Aerogels as Floating, Sustainable, Reusable, and Recyclable Oil Absorbents
journal, May 2011

  • Korhonen, Juuso T.; Kettunen, Marjo; Ras, Robin H. A.
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 3, Issue 6, p. 1813-1816
  • DOI: 10.1021/am200475b

One step recovery of succinic acid from fermentation broths by crystallization
journal, May 2010

Lignin valorization through integrated biological funneling and chemical catalysis
journal, August 2014

  • Linger, J. G.; Vardon, D. R.; Guarnieri, M. T.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue 33, p. 12013-12018
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1410657111

Chemical transformations of succinic acid recovered from fermentation broths by a novel direct vacuum distillation-crystallisation method
journal, January 2009

  • Luque, Rafael; Lin, Carol S. K.; Du, Chenyu
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 11, Issue 2, p. 193-200
  • DOI: 10.1039/B813409J

Experimental criterion for the absence of artifacts in the measurement of rates of heterogeneous catalytic reactions
journal, November 1982

  • Madon, Rostam J.; Boudart, Michel
  • Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals, Vol. 21, Issue 4, p. 438-447
  • DOI: 10.1021/i100008a022

Development of a broad-host-range sacB-based vector for unmarked allelic exchange
journal, January 2008

The Pseudomonas putida Crc Global Regulator Controls the Expression of Genes from Several Chromosomal Catabolic Pathways for Aromatic Compounds
journal, February 2004

The Pseudomonas putida Crc global regulator controls the hierarchical assimilation of amino acids in a complete medium: Evidence from proteomic and genomic analyses
journal, June 2009

  • Moreno, Renata; Martínez-Gomariz, Montserrat; Yuste, Luis
  • PROTEOMICS, Vol. 9, Issue 11, p. 2910-2928
  • DOI: 10.1002/pmic.200800918

Lignin Pyrolysis Components and Upgrading—Technology Review
journal, February 2013

Disassembly and reassembly of polyhydroxyalkanoates: Recycling through abiotic depolymerization and biotic repolymerization
journal, October 2014

Complete genome sequence and comparative analysis of the metabolically versatile Pseudomonas putida KT2440
journal, December 2002

Benzene-Free Synthesis of Adipic Acid
journal, April 2002

  • Niu, W.; Draths, K. M.; Frost, J. W.
  • Biotechnology Progress, Vol. 18, Issue 2, p. 201-211
  • DOI: 10.1021/bp010179x

Complete nucleotide sequence and polypeptide analysis of multicomponent phenol hydroxylase from Pseudomonas sp. strain CF600.
journal, December 1990

Cleavage and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of C–O bonds relevant to lignin conversion using Pd/Zn synergistic catalysis
journal, January 2013

  • Parsell, Trenton H.; Owen, Benjamin C.; Klein, Ian
  • Chem. Sci., Vol. 4, Issue 2, p. 806-813
  • DOI: 10.1039/C2SC21657D

Toward biotechnological production of adipic acid and precursors from biorenewables
journal, August 2013

Effective hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived oxygenates into unsaturated hydrocarbons by MoO3 using low H2 pressures
journal, January 2013

  • Prasomsri, Teerawit; Nimmanwudipong, Tarit; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 6, Issue 6, p. 1732-1738
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3ee24360e

Lignin Valorization: Improving Lignin Processing in the Biorefinery
journal, May 2014

  • Ragauskas, A. J.; Beckham, G. T.; Biddy, M. J.
  • Science, Vol. 344, Issue 6185, p. 1246843-1246843
  • DOI: 10.1126/science.1246843

Automated design of synthetic ribosome binding sites to control protein expression
journal, October 2009

  • Salis, Howard M.; Mirsky, Ethan A.; Voigt, Christopher A.
  • Nature Biotechnology, Vol. 27, Issue 10, p. 946-950
  • DOI: 10.1038/nbt.1568

Chemical properties of catechols and their molecular modes of toxic action in cells, from microorganisms to mammals. Minireview
journal, February 2001

Sugar hydrogenation over a Ru/C catalyst
journal, January 2011

  • Sifontes Herrera, Víctor A.; Oladele, Oluwamuyiwa; Kordás, Krisztián
  • Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, Vol. 86, Issue 5, p. 658-668
  • DOI: 10.1002/jctb.2565

Advances in modifying lignin for enhanced biofuel production
journal, June 2010

  • Simmons, Blake A.; Loqué, Dominique; Ralph, John
  • Current Opinion in Plant Biology, Vol. 13, Issue 3, p. 312-319
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.pbi.2010.03.001

Compositional Analysis of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks. 1. Review and Description of Methods
journal, August 2010

  • Sluiter, Justin B.; Ruiz, Raymond O.; Scarlata, Christopher J.
  • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 58, Issue 16, p. 9043-9053
  • DOI: 10.1021/jf1008023

Advancing the Frontiers in Nanocatalysis, Biointerfaces, and Renewable Energy Conversion by Innovations of Surface Techniques
journal, November 2009

  • Somorjai, Gabor A.; Frei, Heinz; Park, Jeong Y.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 131, Issue 46, p. 16589-16605
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja9061954

A Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization in Acidic Environments
journal, November 2013

  • Sturgeon, Matthew R.; Kim, Seonah; Lawrence, Kelsey
  • ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, Vol. 2, Issue 3, p. 472-485
  • DOI: 10.1021/sc400384w

Intensified crystallization in complex media: Heuristics for crystallization of platform chemicals
journal, July 2012

  • Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C. P. M.; Verdoes, D.
  • Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 77, p. 18-25
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2012.02.019

Generation of a catR deficient mutant of P. putida KT2440 that produces cis, cis-muconate from benzoate at high rate and yield
journal, December 2011

Hydrothermal catalytic processing of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids to hydrocarbons with glycerol for in situ hydrogen production
journal, January 2014

  • Vardon, Derek R.; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Jaramillo, Humberto
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 16, Issue 3, p. 1507-1520
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3gc41798k

Biosynthesis of cis, cis-Muconic Acid and Its Aromatic Precursors, Catechol and Protocatechuic Acid, from Renewable Feedstocks by Saccharomyces cerevisiae
journal, September 2012

  • Weber, Christian; Brückner, Christine; Weinreb, Sheila
  • Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 78, Issue 23, p. 8421-8430
  • DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01983-12

Microbial synthesis of cis,cis-muconic acid by Sphingobacterium sp. GCG generated from effluent of a styrene monomer (SM) production plant
journal, December 2004

Microbial synthesis of cis,cis-muconic acid from benzoate by Sphingobacterium sp. mutants
journal, April 2006

  • Wu, Chun-Ming; Wu, Chang-Chan; Su, Chien-Chou
  • Biochemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 29, Issue 1-2, p. 35-40
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.bej.2005.02.034

Regioselective carboxylation of catechol by 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase of Enterobacter cloacae P
journal, February 2010

  • Yoshida, Toyokazu; Inami, Yuki; Matsui, Tsuyoshi
  • Biotechnology Letters, Vol. 32, Issue 5, p. 701-705
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10529-010-0210-3

Review of Pt-Based Bimetallic Catalysis: From Model Surfaces to Supported Catalysts
journal, August 2012

  • Yu, Weiting; Porosoff, Marc D.; Chen, Jingguang G.
  • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 112, Issue 11, p. 5780-5817
  • DOI: 10.1021/cr300096b

The Catalytic Valorization of Lignin for the Production of Renewable Chemicals
journal, June 2010

  • Zakzeski, Joseph; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Jongerius, Anna L.
  • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 110, Issue 6, p. 3552-3599
  • DOI: 10.1021/cr900354u

PHAs Produced by Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas oleovorans Grown with n-Alkanoic Acids Containing Aromatic Groups
journal, September 1999

  • Kim, Do Young; Rhee, Young Ha
  • Macromolecules, Vol. 32, Issue 19, p. 6058-6064
  • DOI: 10.1021/ma982033t