Global to push GA events into
skip to main content

Title: Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.
; ;
Issue Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Patent Number(s):
Application Number:
Contract Number:
Resource Relation:
Patent File Date: 2012 Dec 14
Research Org:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States

Works referenced in this record:

Characterization of diphtheria fusion proteins targeted to the human interleukin-3 receptor
journal, August 2000
  • Frankel, Arthur E.; Ramage, Jason; Kiser, Melanie
  • Protein Engineering, Design and Selection, Vol. 13, Issue 8, p. 575-581
  • DOI: 10.1093/protein/13.8.575

The maize GapC4 promoter confers anaerobic reporter gene expression and shows homology to the maize anthocyanin regulatory locus C1
journal, December 1995
  • Kohler, Uwe; Liaud, Marie-Francoise; Mendel, Ralf R.
  • Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 29, Issue 6, p. 1293-1298
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00020469

The Molecular-Genetics of Nitrogen Assimilation Into Amino Acids In Higher Plants
journal, June 1996
  • Lam, H.-M.; Coschigano, K. T.; Oliveira, I. C.
  • Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 47, Issue 1, p. 569-593
  • DOI: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.47.1.569

A zein gene of maize is transcribed from two widely separated promoter regions
journal, October 1983

Differential expression of six glutamine synthetase genes in Zea mays
journal, October 1993
  • Li, Min -gang; Villemur, Richard; Hussey, Patrick J.
  • Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 23, Issue 2, p. 401-407
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00029015

Expression of soybean lectin gene deletions in tobacco
journal, January 1990
  • Lindstrom, Jon T.; Vodkin, Lila O.; Harding, Roy W.
  • Developmental Genetics, Vol. 11, Issue 2, p. 160-167
  • DOI: 10.1002/dvg.1020110206

Structure, evolution and anaerobic regulation of a nuclear gene encoding cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from maize
journal, August 1989
  • Martinez, Pascal; Martin, William; Cerff, Rüdiger
  • Journal of Molecular Biology, Vol. 208, Issue 4, p. 551-565
  • DOI: 10.1016/0022-2836(89)90147-2

A gene network controlling glutamine and asparagine biosynthesis in plants.
journal, November 1991

A general method applicable to the search for similarities in the amino acid sequence of two proteins
journal, March 1970

Identification of DNA sequences required for activity of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter
journal, February 1985
  • Odell, Joan T.; Nagy, Ferenc; Chua, Nam-Hai
  • Nature, Vol. 313, Issue 6005, p. 810-812
  • DOI: 10.1038/313810a0

Metabolite and light regulation of metabolism in plants: lessons from the study of a single biochemical pathway
journal, May 2001
  • Oliveira, I.C.; Brenner, E.; Chiu, J.
  • Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Vol. 34, Issue 5, p. 567-575
  • DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2001000500003

Molecular cloning and expression of a cDNA for human kidney cysteine conjugate β-lyase
journal, March 1995

Targeting transgene expression in research, agricultural, and environmental applications: Promoters used in plant transformation
journal, January 2004
  • Potenza, Carol; Aleman, Lorenzo; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa
  • In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant, Vol. 40, Issue 1, p. 1-22
  • DOI: 10.1079/IVP2003477

Molecular and general genetics of a hybrid foreign gene introduced into tobacco by direct gene transfer
journal, January 1985
  • Potrykus, Ingo; Paszkowski, Jerzy; Saul, Michael W.
  • MGG Molecular & General Genetics, Vol. 199, Issue 2, p. 169-177
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00330255

Characterization of an rbcS gene from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and expression of an rbcS-CAT chimeric gene in homologous and heterologous nuclear background
journal, November 1986
  • Poulsen, Carsten; Fluhr, Robert; Kauffman, John M.
  • MGG Molecular & General Genetics, Vol. 205, Issue 2, p. 193-200
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00430426

Strong functional GC pressure in a light-regulated maize gene encoding subunit GAPA of chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: Implications for the evolution of GAPA pseudogenes
journal, November 1989
  • Quigley, Françoise; Brinkmann, Henner; Martin, William F.
  • Journal of Molecular Evolution, Vol. 29, Issue 5, p. 412-421
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02602911

Two classes of differentially regulated glutamine synthetase genes are expressed in the soybean nodule: a nodule-specific class and a constitutively expressed class
journal, September 1993
  • Roche, Dominique; Temple, Stephen J.; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa
  • Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 22, Issue 6, p. 971-983
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00028970

[15] Improved vectors for plant transformation: Expression cassette vectors and new selectable markers
journal, January 1987

Gene transfer in plants: Production of transformed plants using Ti plasmid vectors
journal, January 1986

Three cDNA sequences coding for glutamine synthetase polypeptides in Oryza sativa L.
journal, November 1989
  • Sakamoto, Atsushi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Masumura, Takehiro
  • Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 13, Issue 5, p. 611-614
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00027323

Molecular analysis of three maize 22 kDa auxin-binding protein genes - transient promoter expression and regulatory regions
journal, September 1993

Fertile transgenic rice plants regenerated from transformed protoplasts
journal, March 1989
  • Shimamoto, Ko; Terada, Rie; Izawa, Takeshi
  • Nature, Vol. 338, Issue 6212, p. 274-276
  • DOI: 10.1038/338274a0

Isolation and characterization of a maize chlorophyll a/b binding protein gene that produces high levels of mRNA in the dark
journal, February 1989
  • Sullivan, Thomas D.; Christensen, Alan H.; Quail, Peter H.
  • MGG Molecular & General Genetics, Vol. 215, Issue 3, p. 431-440
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00427040

A Highly Efficient Transformation Protocol for Micro-Tom, a Model Cultivar for Tomato Functional Genomics
journal, March 2006
  • Sun, Hyeon-Jin; Uchii, Sayaka; Watanabe, Shin
  • Plant and Cell Physiology, Vol. 47, Issue 3, p. 426-431
  • DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pci251

Modulation of glutamine synthetase gene expression in tobacco by the introduction of an alfalfa glutamine synthetase gene in sense and antisense orientation: molecular and biochemical analysis
journal, January 1993
  • Temple, Stephen J.; Knight, Thomas J.; Unkefer, Pat J.
  • MGG Molecular & General Genetics, Vol. 236-236, Issue 2-3, p. 315-325
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00277128

Nucleotide sequence of an alfalfa glutamine synthetase gene
journal, May 1986
  • Tischer, Edmund; DasSarma, Shiladitya; Goodman, Howard M.
  • MGG Molecular & General Genetics, Vol. 203, Issue 2, p. 221-229
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00333958

Maize α-tubulin genes are expressed according to specific patterns of cell differentiation
journal, January 1998
  • Uribe, Xavier; Torres, Miguel Angel; Capellades, Montserrat
  • Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 37, Issue 6, p. 1069-1078
  • DOI: 10.1023/A:1006067710312

The effect of additional virulence genes on transformation efficiency, transgene integration and expression in rice plants using the pGreen/pSoup dual binary vector system
journal, December 2004
  • Vain, Philippe; Harvey, Alison; Worland, Barbara
  • Transgenic Research, Vol. 13, Issue 6, p. 593-603
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11248-004-2808-5

Synthetic promoters genetic control through cis engineering
journal, March 2007

Ca lectin gene insertion has the structural features of a transposable element
journal, October 1983

A Rapid and Simple Method of Assaying Plants Transformed with Hygromycin or PPT Resistance Genes
journal, January 1997
  • Wang, Ming-Bo; Waterhouse, Peter M.
  • Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, Vol. 15, Issue 3, p. 209-215
  • DOI: 10.1023/A:1007446721394

Analysis of a chimeric class-I patatin-GUS gene in transgenic potato plants: High-level expression in tubers and sucrose-inducible expression in cultured leaf and stem explants
journal, January 1989
  • Wenzler, Herman C.; Mignery, Gregory A.; Fisher, Linda M.
  • Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 12, Issue 1, p. 41-50
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00017446

In Planta Transformation of Tomato
journal, June 2008
  • Yasmeen, Abida; Mirza, Bushra; Inayatullah, Samia
  • Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, Vol. 27, Issue 1, p. 20-28
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11105-008-0044-5

[130] Glutamine synthetase Escherichia coli
book, January 1970
  • Shapiro, Bennett M.; Stadtman, E.R.
  • Methods in Enzymology, Part of volume Metabolism of Amino Acids and Amines Part A, p. 910-922
  • DOI: 10.1016/0076-6879(71)17305-3

Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs
journal, September 1997
  • Altschul, Stephen F.; Madden, Thomas L.; Schäffer, Alejandro A.
  • Nucleic Acids Research, Vol. 25, Issue 17, p. 3389-3402
  • DOI: 10.1093/nar/25.17.3389

Transient expression from cab-m1 and rbcS-m3 promoter sequences is different in mesophyll and bundle sheath cells in maize leaves.
journal, April 1992
  • Bansal, K. C.; Viret, J. F.; Haley, J.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 89, Issue 8, p. 3654-3658
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.89.8.3654

Glutamine synthetase isoenzymes of Phaseolus vulgaris L. subunit composition in developing root nodules and plumules
journal, November 1989
  • Bennett, Malcolm J.; Cullimore, Julie V.
  • Planta, Vol. 179, Issue 4, p. 433-440
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00397582

Cloning and characterization of a nodule-enhanced glutamine synthetase-encoding gene from Lupinus luteus
journal, December 1993

Specificity of Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of maize streak virus DNA to members of the Gramineae
journal, January 1989
  • Boulton, Margaret I.; Buchholz, Wallace G.; Marks, Melanie S.
  • Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 12, Issue 1, p. 31-40
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00017445

A promoter sequence involved in cell-specific expression of the pea glutamine synthetase GS3A gene in organs of transgenic tobacco and alfalfa
journal, September 1991

Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana
journal, December 1998

Expression of a maize proteinase inhibitor gene is induced in response to wounding and fungal infection: systemic wound-response of a monocot gene
journal, August 1994

Molecular approaches to the study of amino acid biosynthesis in plants
journal, January 1991

Plant glutamine synthetase complements a glnA mutation in Escherichia coli
journal, June 1986
  • DasSarma, S.; Tischer, E.; Goodman, H. M.
  • Science, Vol. 232, Issue 4755, p. 1242-1244
  • DOI: 10.1126/science.2871626

Molecular analysis of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adhl) gene of maize
journal, May 1984
  • Dennis, E.S.; Gerlach, W.L.; Pryor, A.J.
  • Nucleic Acids Research, Vol. 12, Issue 9, p. 3983-4000
  • DOI: 10.1093/nar/12.9.3983

Localization of tobacco cytosolic glutamine synthetase enzymes and the corresponding transcripts shows organ- and cell-specific patterns of protein synthesis and gene expression
journal, July 1996
  • Dubois, Frederic; Brugiere, Norbert; Sangwan, Rajbir S.
  • Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 31, Issue 4, p. 803-817
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00019468

Structure–function relationships of glutamine synthetases
journal, March 2000
  • Eisenberg, David; Gill, Harindarpal S.; Pfluegl, Gaston M.U.
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology, Vol. 1477, Issue 1-2, p. 122-145
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0167-4838(99)00270-8

[21] Electroporation of DNA and RNA into plant protoplasts
book, January 1987

Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of infectious maize streak virus into maize plants
journal, January 1987
  • Grimsley, Nigel; Hohn, Thomas; Davies, Jeffrey W.
  • Nature, Vol. 325, Issue 6100, p. 177-179
  • DOI: 10.1038/325177a0

The inhibitory effect of oak leaf litter tannins on the growth of fungi, in relation to litter decomposition
journal, August 1971

Expression of Ti plasmid genes in monocotyledonous plants infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens
journal, October 1984
  • Hooykaas-Van Slogteren, G. M. S.; Hooykaas, P. J. J.; Schilperoort, R. A.
  • Nature, Vol. 311, Issue 5988, p. 763-764
  • DOI: 10.1038/311763a0

Structure and expression of the maize gene encoding the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozyme involved in C4 photosynthesis
journal, May 1989
  • Hudspeth, Richard L.; Grula, John W.
  • Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 12, Issue 5, p. 579-589
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00036971

Over‐expression of cytosolic glutamine synthetase increases photosynthesis and growth at low nitrogen concentrations
journal, May 2001
  • Fuentes, Sara I.; Allen, Damian J.; Ortiz‐Lopez, Adriana
  • Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 52, Issue 358, p. 1071-1081
  • DOI: 10.1093/jexbot/52.358.1071

The role of glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen assimilation and possibilities for improvement in the nitrogen utilization of crops
journal, April 2002
  • Miflin, Ben J.; Habash, Dimah Z.
  • Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 53, Issue 370, p. 979-987
  • DOI: 10.1093/jexbot/53.370.979

Electroporation: Mechanism and transient expression, stable transformation and biological effects in plant protoplasts
journal, February 1991

GATEWAY™ vectors for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation
journal, May 2002

Cysteine-S-conjugate β-Lyase Activity and Pyridoxal Phosphate Binding Site of Onion Alliin Lyase
journal, January 1997
  • Kitamura, Nobuko; Shimomura, Naoya; Iseki, Junji
  • Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, Vol. 61, Issue 8, p. 1327-1330
  • DOI: 10.1271/bbb.61.1327

Biosynthesis and secretion of mugineic acid family phytosiderophores in zinc-deficient barley
journal, October 2006

Biological functions of proline in morphogenesis and osmotolerance revealed in antisense transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana
journal, April 1999

Synthese von 1.5-Diaza-cyclooctan-dion-(4.8)-dicarbonsäure-(2.6)
journal, April 1954
  • Weygand, Friedrich; Dietrich, Heinz-Jürgen
  • Chemische Berichte, Vol. 87, Issue 4, p. 482-488
  • DOI: 10.1002/cber.19540870408

Leaf-specific overexpression of plastidic glutamine synthetase stimulates the growth of transgenic tobacco seedlings
journal, January 2000
  • Migge, Andrea; Carrayol, Elisa; Hirel, Bertrand
  • Planta, Vol. 210, Issue 2, p. 252-260
  • DOI: 10.1007/PL00008132

Does root glutamine synthetase control plant biomass production in Lotus japonicus L.?
journal, October 1999
  • Limami, Anis; Phillipson, Belinda; Ameziane, Rafiqa
  • Planta, Vol. 209, Issue 4, p. 495-502
  • DOI: 10.1007/s004250050753

Expression of a conifer glutamine synthetase gene in transgenic poplar
journal, November 1999
  • Gallardo, Fernando; Fu, Jianming; Cantón, Francisco R.
  • Planta, Vol. 210, Issue 1, p. 19-26
  • DOI: 10.1007/s004250050649

Forcing expression of a soybean root glutamine synthetase gene in tobacco leaves induces a native gene encoding cytosolic enzyme
journal, October 1992
  • Hirel, Bertrand; Marsolier, Marie C.; Hoarau, Anne
  • Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 20, Issue 2, p. 207-218
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00014489

Overproduction of alfalfa glutamine synthetase in transgenic tobacco plants
journal, June 1989
  • Eckes, Peter; Schmitt, Petra; Daub, Winfried
  • MGG Molecular & General Genetics, Vol. 217, Issue 2-3, p. 263-268
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02464891