skip to main content
DOE Patents title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto


A method for producing a microbial growth stimulant (MGS) from a plant biomass is described. In one embodiment, an ammonium hydroxide solution is used to extract a solution of proteins and ammonia from the biomass. Some of the proteins and ammonia are separated from the extracted solution to provide the MGS solution. The removed ammonia can be recycled and the proteins are useful as animal feeds. In one embodiment, the method comprises extracting solubles from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulase enzyme-producing growth medium (such T. reesei) in the presence of water and an aqueous extract.

Issue Date:
Research Org.:
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Patent Number(s):
Application Number:
DOE Contract Number:  
Resource Type:
Resource Relation:
Patent File Date: 2010 Apr 19
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Lau, Ming Woei. Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto. United States: N. p., 2015. Web.
Lau, Ming Woei. Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto. United States.
Lau, Ming Woei. Tue . "Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto". United States.
title = {Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto},
author = {Lau, Ming Woei},
abstractNote = {A method for producing a microbial growth stimulant (MGS) from a plant biomass is described. In one embodiment, an ammonium hydroxide solution is used to extract a solution of proteins and ammonia from the biomass. Some of the proteins and ammonia are separated from the extracted solution to provide the MGS solution. The removed ammonia can be recycled and the proteins are useful as animal feeds. In one embodiment, the method comprises extracting solubles from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulase enzyme-producing growth medium (such T. reesei) in the presence of water and an aqueous extract.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {12}


Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Fuel pellet
patent-application, July 2008

Biomass Pretreatment
patent-application, February 2009

High Density Storage of Ammonia
patent-application, May 2009

Mushroom spent straw: a potential substrate for an ethanol-based biorefinery
journal, January 2008

  • Balan, Venkatesh; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.
  • Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, Vol. 35, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10295-007-0294-5

Variability of laccase activity in the white-rot basidiomycetePleurotus ostreatus
journal, August 2002

  • Baldrian, P.; Gabriel, J.
  • Folia Microbiologica, Vol. 47, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02818695

The World Mushroom Industry: Trends and Technological Development
journal, January 2006

Biotechnological applications and potential of wood-degrading mushrooms of the genus Pleurotus
journal, April 2002

Increasing nutrient availability of feather meal for ruminants and non-ruminants using an ammonia pressurisation/depressurisation process
journal, May 1999

Predicting Digestibility of Ammonia Fiber Explosion (AFEX)-Treated Rice Straw
journal, January 2002

  • Gollapalli, Lisa E.; Dale, Bruce E.; Rivers, Douglas M.
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 98-100, Issue 1-9
  • DOI: 10.1385/ABAB:98-100:1-9:23

Fungal Upgrading of Wheat Straw for Straw-Thermoplastics Production
journal, January 2004

  • Houghton, Tracy P.; Thompson, David N.; Hess, J. Richard
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 113, Issue 1-3, p. 71-93
  • DOI: 10.1385/ABAB:113:1-3:071

Bio-technologies of Recycling Agro-industrial Wastes for the Production of Commercially Important Fungal Polysaccharides and Mushrooms
journal, December 2003

Botanical fractions of rice straw colonized by white-rot fungi: changes in chemical composition and structure
journal, October 1995

  • Karunanandaa, K.; Varga, G. A.; Akin, D. E.
  • Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 55, Issue 3-4, p. 179-199
  • DOI: 10.1016/0377-8401(95)00805-W

Microbial Pretreatment of Biomass: Potential for Reducing Severity of Thermochemical Biomass Pretreatment
journal, January 2003

  • Keller, Fred A.; Hamilton, Jenny E.; Nguyen, Quang A.
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 105, Issue 1-3, p. 27-42
  • DOI: 10.1385/ABAB:105:1-3:27

Comparative study on the growth and yield of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom on different lignocellulosic by-products
journal, February 2003

  • Obodai, M.; Cleland-Okine, J.; Vowotor, K. A.
  • Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, Vol. 30, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10295-002-0021-1

Biodegradation of Viticulture Wastes by Pleurotus :  A Source of Microbial and Human Food and Its Potential Use in Animal Feeding
journal, April 2002

  • Sánchez, Alfonso; Ysunza, Francisco; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.
  • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1021/jf011308s

Solid-State Fermentation of Lignocellulosic Plant Residues from Brassica napus by Pleurotus ostreatus
journal, January 1999

  • Sarikaya, Ayda; Ladisch, Michael R.
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 82, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1385/ABAB:82:1:1

Composting of a crop residue through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting
journal, November 2002

Evaluation of pretreatment with Pleurotus ostreatus for enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw
journal, December 2005

  • Taniguchi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Daisuke
  • Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Vol. 100, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1263/jbb.100.637

Optimization of the ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) treatment parameters for enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover
journal, December 2005

  • Teymouri, Farzaneh; Laureano-Perez, Lizbeth; Alizadeh, Hasan
  • Bioresource Technology, Vol. 96, Issue 18, p. 2014-2018
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2005.01.016

An initial assessment of spent mushroom compost as a potential energy feedstock
journal, September 2001

Comparative sugar recovery data from laboratory scale application of leading pretreatment technologies to corn stover
journal, December 2005

Coordinated development of leading biomass pretreatment technologies
journal, December 2005

Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw
journal, May 2002

Roll Press Briquetting and Pelleting of Corn Stover and Switchgrass
journal, January 2009

  • Kaliyan, N.; Morey, R. V.; White, M. D.
  • Transactions of the ASABE, Vol. 52, Issue 2, p. 543-555
  • DOI: 10.13031/2013.26812

Production of Cellulase by Solid-State Fermentation
book, January 1999

  • Cen, Peilin; Xia, Liming; Scheper, T.
  • Recent Progress in Bioconversion of Lignocellulosics
  • DOI: 10.1007/3-540-49194-5_4

Production of Cellulase in Solid-State Fermentation with Trichoderma reesei MCG 80 on Wheat Straw
book, January 1996

  • Chahal, Parminder S.; Chahal, Devinder S.; Lê, George B. B.
  • Seventeenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4612-0223-3_40

Microbial Cellulose Utilization: Fundamentals and Biotechnology
journal, September 2002

  • Lynd, L. R.; Weimer, P. J.; van Zyl, W. H.
  • Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, Vol. 66, Issue 3, p. 506-577
  • DOI: 10.1128/MMBR.66.3.506-577.2002

Advancement and comparative profiles in the production technologies using solid-state and submerged fermentation for microbial cellulases
journal, June 2010

  • Singhania, Reeta Rani; Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Patel, Anil Kumar
  • Enzyme and Microbial Technology, Vol. 46, Issue 7, p. 541-549
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2010.03.010

Production and characterization of cellulolytic enzymes from Trichoderma reesei grown on various carbon sources
journal, January 1992

  • Warzywoda, Michel; Larbre, Elisabeth; Pourquié, Jacques
  • Bioresource Technology, Vol. 39, Issue 2, p. 125-130
  • DOI: 10.1016/0960-8524(92)90130-P

Splitting tendency of cellulosic fibers. Part 2: Effects of fiber swelling in alkali solutions
journal, March 2006

Leaf photosynthesis in the C 4 -grass Miscanthus x giganteus , growing in the cool temperate climate of southern England
journal, January 1996

  • Beale, C. V.; Bint, D. A.; Long, S. P.
  • Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 47, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/jxb/47.2.267

Element Concentrations of Dry-Grind Corn-Processing Streams
journal, January 2006

  • Belyea, Ronald L.; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Singh, Vijay
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 134, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1385/ABAB:134:2:113

Acid–base interactions and swelling of cellulose fibers in organic liquids
journal, July 2005

Biotechnological processes for conversion of corn into ethanol
journal, December 2004

Performance of 15 Genotypes at Five Sites in Europe
journal, January 2001

Pretreatment of Miscanthus for hydrogen production by Thermotoga elfii
journal, November 2002

Process and economic analysis of pretreatment technologies
journal, December 2005

In vitro and in vivo digestibility of soya-bean straw treated with various alkalis
journal, August 1990

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Ammonia-Treated Sugar Beet Pulp
journal, January 2001

  • Foster, Brian L.; Dale, Bruce E.; Doran-Peterson, Joy B.
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 91-93, Issue 1-9
  • DOI: 10.1385/ABAB:91-93:1-9:269

journal, April 2006

  • Gray, Kevin A.; Zhao, Lishan; Emptage, Mark
  • Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, Vol. 10, Issue 2, p. 141-146
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.02.035

Bio-ethanol – the fuel of tomorrow from the residues of today
journal, December 2006

  • Hahn-Hägerdal, B.; Galbe, M.; Gorwa-Grauslund, M. F.
  • Trends in Biotechnology, Vol. 24, Issue 12, p. 549-556
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2006.10.004

Miscanthus for Renewable Energy Generation: European Union Experience and Projections for Illinois
journal, October 2004

Cooperative and Competitive Binding in Synergistic Mixtures of Thermobifida fusca Cellulases Cel5A, Cel6B, and Cel9A
journal, August 2002

  • Jeoh, T.; Wilson, D. B.; Walker, L. P.
  • Biotechnology Progress, Vol. 18, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1021/bp0200402

Principles of biorefineries
journal, April 2004

Enhancement of the Enzymatic Digestibility of Waste Newspaper Using Tween
journal, January 2006

  • Kim, Sung Bae; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Chang Joon
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 130, Issue 1-3
  • DOI: 10.1385/ABAB:130:1:486

Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass
journal, April 2005

journal, October 2003

The Path Forward for Biofuels and Biomaterials
journal, January 2006

  • Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Williams, Charlotte K.; Davison, Brian H.
  • Science, Vol. 311, Issue 5760, p. 484-489
  • DOI: 10.1126/science.1114736

Enhancing Profitability of Dry Mill Ethanol Plants: Process Modeling and Economics of Conversion of Degermed Defibered Corn to Ethanol
journal, January 2005

  • Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Ponnampalam, Elankovan; McCalla, Darold
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 120, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1385/ABAB:120:1:37

The Future of Coproducts From Corn Processing
journal, January 2006

  • Rausch, Kent D.; Belyea, Ronald L.
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 128, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1385/ABAB:128:1:047

Hemicellulose bioconversion
journal, May 2003

Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review
journal, May 2002

Body temperature-responsive gels derived from hydroxypropylcellulose bearing lignin II: adsorption and release behavior
journal, May 2006

Improving Digestibility of Straws for Ruminant Feed by Aqueous Ammonia
journal, July 1972

  • Waiss, A. C.; Guggolz, J.; Kohler, G. O.
  • Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 35, Issue 1, p. 109-112
  • DOI: 10.2527/jas1972.351109x

Fuel ethanol after 25 years
journal, December 1999

Improving Accessibility and Reactivity of Celluloses of Annual Plants for the Synthesis of Methylcellulose
journal, October 2005

A Transition from Cellulose Swelling to Cellulose Dissolution by o -Phosphoric Acid:  Evidence from Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Supramolecular Structure
journal, February 2006

  • Zhang, Y. -H. Percival; Cui, Jingbiao; Lynd, Lee R.
  • Biomacromolecules, Vol. 7, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/bm050799c

Toward an aggregated understanding of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: Noncomplexed cellulase systems
journal, November 2004

  • Zhang, Yi-Heng Percival; Lynd, Lee R.
  • Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 88, Issue 7, p. 797-824
  • DOI: 10.1002/bit.20282

Assessment of the influence of media particle size on the biofiltration of odorous exhaust ventilation air from a piggery facility
journal, September 2002

Biological waste air treatment in biofilters
journal, June 1997

Effect of particle size based separation of milled corn stover on AFEX pretreatment and enzymatic digestibility
journal, January 2006

  • Chundawat, Shishir P.S.; Venkatesh, Balan; Dale, Bruce E.
  • Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 96, Issue 2, p. 219-231
  • DOI: 10.1002/bit.21132

Replacement of fish meal in diets for Australian silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus: I. Digestibility of alternative ingredients
journal, June 2000

Extractability and solubility of leaf protein
journal, January 1973

  • Betschart, Antoinette; Kinsella, John E.
  • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 21, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/jf60185a019

Nutritional potential and functional properties of sweet and bitter lupin seed protein isolates
journal, September 2001

Pilot Plant Production of an Edible Alfalfa Protein Concentrate
journal, September 1981

The ammonia freeze explosion (AFEX) process: A practical lignocellulose pretreatment
journal, March 1991

  • Holtzapple, Mark T.; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Ashok, Ganesh
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 28-29, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02922589

Ethanol fermentation from biomass resources: current state and prospects
journal, December 2005

Assays for Total Protein
book, September 1995

Cutting Frequency and Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Yield and Nitrogen Concentration of Switchgrass in a Short Season Area
journal, January 1999

Obtaining a protein concentrate from integral defatted sunflower flour
journal, June 2001

Investigation and Optimization of the Factors Influencing Sorghum Protein Extraction
journal, November 2003

  • Park, Seok-Ho; Bean, Scott Roger
  • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 51, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1021/jf034533d

Integrated production of ethanol fuel and protein from Coastal Bermudagrass
journal, March 1994

  • De La Rosa, Luis B.; Reshamwala, Sultan; Latimer, Vivian M.
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 45-46, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02941823

Switchgrass as a sustainable bioenergy crop
journal, April 1996

Cellulase production using biomass feed stock and its application in lignocellulose saccharification for bio-ethanol production
journal, February 2009

  • Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Singhania, Reeta Rani; Mathew, Gincy Marina
  • Renewable Energy, Vol. 34, Issue 2, p. 421-424
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2008.05.008

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Ammonia-Treated Rice Straw
journal, January 2003

  • Sulbarán-De-Ferrer, Betzabé; Aristiguieta, Marielena; Dale, Bruce E.
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 105, Issue 1-3
  • DOI: 10.1385/ABAB:105:1-3:155

Induction and catabolite repression mechanisms of cellulase in fungi
journal, January 2001

Leaf Protein from Ammonia-Treated Dwarf Elephant Grass (<I>Pennisetum purpureum</I> Schum cv. Mott)
journal, January 2005

  • Urribarrí, Lauris; Ferrer, Alexis; Colina, Alejandro
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 122, Issue 1-3
  • DOI: 10.1385/ABAB:122:1-3:0721

Cocurrent downflow circulating fluidized bed (downer) reactors - A state of the art review
journal, October 1995

  • Zhu, J. -X.; Yu, Z. -Q.; Jin, Y.
  • The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 73, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/cjce.5450730510

Two-step SSCF to convert AFEX-treated switchgrass to ethanol using commercial enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST)
journal, November 2010

Lime pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover
journal, December 2005

Pretreatment and fractionation of corn stover by ammonia recycle percolation process
journal, December 2005

Pretreatment of Corn Stover by Low-Liquid Ammonia Recycle Percolation Process
journal, January 2006

  • Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Yoon Y.; Sunwoo, Changshin
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 133, Issue 1, p. 41-58
  • DOI: 10.1385/ABAB:133:1:41

Does densification influence the steam pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of softwoods to sugars?
journal, October 2012

Cellulosic ethanol production from AFEX-treated corn stover using Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST)
journal, January 2009

  • Lau, M. W.; Dale, B. E.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, Issue 5, p. 1368-1373
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0812364106

Understanding Factors that Limit Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Biomass: Characterization of Pretreated Corn Stover
journal, January 2005

  • Laureano-Perez, Lizbeth; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Alizadeh, Hasan
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 124, Issue 1-3
  • DOI: 10.1385/ABAB:124:1-3:1081

Partial flow of compressed-hot water through corn stover to enhance hemicellulose sugar recovery and enzymatic digestibility of cellulose
journal, December 2005

Cellulase Adsorption and an Evaluation of Enzyme Recycle During Hydrolysis of Steam-Exploded Softwood Residues
journal, January 2002

Economics of Producing fuel Pellets from Biomass
journal, January 2006

Complete Rations for Dairy Cattle. II. Sugarcane Bagasse Pellets as Roughage in Blended Rations for Lactating Cows
journal, June 1975

Optimization of pH controlled liquid hot water pretreatment of corn stover
journal, December 2005

Detoxification methods of aflatoxins. A review
journal, May 1995

Development of a pilot process for the production of alfalfa peptide isolate: Production of alfalfa peptide isolate
journal, April 2003

  • Prévot-D'Alvise, Nathalie; Lesueur-Lambert, Christine; Fertin-Bazus, Anne
  • Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, Vol. 78, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/jctb.824

Combined effect of pelleting and pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass
journal, July 2012

Increasing cellulose accessibility is more important than removing lignin: A comparison of cellulose solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation and soaking in aqueous ammonia
journal, September 2010

  • Rollin, Joseph A.; Zhu, Zhiguang; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon
  • Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 108, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/bit.22919

Complete Rations for Dairy Cattle. V. Interaction of Sugarcane Bagasse Quantity and Form with Soybean Meal, Urea, and Starea
journal, September 1975

Recent process improvements for the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process and resulting reductions in minimum ethanol selling price
journal, November 2008

Optimizing Ammonia Pressurization/Depressurization Processing Conditions to Enhance Enzymatic Susceptibility of Dwarf Elephant Grass
journal, January 2000

  • Ferrer, Alexis; Byers, Floyd M.; Sulbarán-de-Ferrer, Betzabé
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 84-86, Issue 1-9
  • DOI: 10.1385/ABAB:84-86:1-9:163

Comparing the fermentation performance of Escherichia coli KO11, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST) and Zymomonas mobilis AX101 for cellulosic ethanol production
journal, January 2010

  • Lau, Ming W.; Gunawan, Christa; Balan, Venkatesh
  • Biotechnology for Biofuels, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1186/1754-6834-3-11

Combined sugar yields for dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids
journal, December 2005

Liquid-vapor interfacial properties of water-ammonia mixtures: Dependence on ammonia concentration
journal, November 2005

  • Paul, Sandip; Chandra, Amalendu
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 123, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2107428

Toward a Systems Approach to Understanding Plant Cell Walls
journal, December 2004

Enzyme Recovery and Recycling Following Hydrolysis of Ammonia Fiber Explosion–Treated Corn Stover
journal, January 2005

  • Steele, Bernie; Raj, Srini; Nghiem, John
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 124, Issue 1-3
  • DOI: 10.1385/ABAB:124:1-3:0901

Effects of the pelleting conditions on chemical composition and sugar yield of corn stover, big bluestem, wheat straw, and sorghum stalk pellets
journal, October 2011

  • Theerarattananoon, Karnnalin; Xu, Feng; Wilson, Jonathan
  • Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, Vol. 35, Issue 4, p. 615-623
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00449-011-0642-8

Cost estimates and sensitivity analyses for the ammonia fiber explosion process
journal, March 1998

  • Wang, Lin; Dale, Bruce E.; Yurttas, Lale
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 70-72, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02920123

The effect of different treatment conditions on biomass binder preparation for lignite briquette
journal, November 2001

Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment Using AFEX
book, January 2009

Evaluating the impact of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment conditions on the cost of ethanol production
journal, January 2011

Growth of the plant cell wall
journal, November 2005

  • Cosgrove, Daniel J.
  • Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, Vol. 6, Issue 11, p. 850-861
  • DOI: 10.1038/nrm1746

Extrusion Processing for Ammonia Fiber Explosion (AFEX)
journal, January 1999

  • Dale, Bruce E.; Weaver, Justin; Byers, F. Michael
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 77, Issue 1-3
  • DOI: 10.1385/ABAB:77:1-3:35

Mixture optimization of six core glycosyl hydrolases for maximizing saccharification of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreated corn stover
journal, April 2010

  • Gao, Dahai; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Krishnan, Chandraraj
  • Bioresource Technology, Vol. 101, Issue 8, p. 2770-2781
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.10.056

Separation of Glucose and Pentose Sugars by Selective Enzyme Hydrolysis of AFEX-Treated Corn Fiber
book, January 2007

  • Hanchar, Robert J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Nielson, Chandra D.
  • Applied Biochemistry and Biotecnology
  • p. 313-325
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-60327-181-3_28

Biomass Densification – Cubing Operations and Costs for corn Stover
journal, January 2004

Complete Rations for Growing Dairy Replacements Utilizing By-Product Feedstuffs
journal, September 1980

Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation from AFEX-treated rice straw
journal, April 2009

  • Zhong, Cheng; Lau, Ming W.; Balan, Venkatesh
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 84, Issue 4, p. 667-676
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00253-009-2001-0

Technical and Financial Feasibility Analysis of Distributed Bioprocessing Using Regional Biomass Pre-Processing Centers
journal, January 2007

  • Carolan, Joseph E.; Joshi, Satish V.; Dale, Bruce E.
  • Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, Vol. 5, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.2202/1542-0485.1203

Multi-scale visualization and characterization of lignocellulosic plant cell wall deconstruction during thermochemical pretreatment
journal, January 2011

  • Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Donohoe, Bryon S.; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 4, Issue 3, 973
  • DOI: 10.1039/C0EE00574F

A novel integrated biological process for cellulosic ethanol production featuring high ethanol productivity, enzyme recycling and yeast cells reuse
journal, January 2012

  • Jin, Mingjie; Gunawan, Christa; Uppugundla, Nirmal
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 5, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1039/C2EE03058F