Global to push GA events into
skip to main content

Title: Growth of large aluminum nitride single crystals with thermal-gradient control

In various embodiments, non-zero thermal gradients are formed within a growth chamber both substantially parallel and substantially perpendicular to the growth direction during formation of semiconductor crystals, where the ratio of the two thermal gradients (parallel to perpendicular) is less than 10, by, e.g., arrangement of thermal shields outside of the growth chamber.
Inventors:
; ; ;
Issue Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1179234
Assignee:
Crystal IS, Inc. (Green Island, NY) NETL
Patent Number(s):
9,028,612
Application Number:
13/173,213
Contract Number:
FC26-08NT01578
Resource Relation:
Patent File Date: 2011 Jun 30
Research Org:
Crystal IS, Inc., Green Island, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Other works cited in this record:

Magnesium-Aluminum Nitrides
patent, September 1970

SIGNAL GENERATOR FOR PRODUCING A SET OF SIGNALS AT BASEBAND FREQUENCY AND WITH ADJUSTABLE PHASE SLOPE
patent, August 1971

INSERT FOR DRILLING UNIT
patent, September 1971

METHOD FOR PREPARING ALUMINUM NITRIDE AND METAL FLUORIDE SINGLE CRYSTALS
patent, September 1971

METHOD OF MANUFACTURING ALUMINIUM NITRIDE CRYSTALS FOR SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
patent, January 1972

SINGLE CRYSTAL BERYLLIUM OXIDE GROWTH FROM CALCIUM OXIDE-BERYLLIUM OXIDE MELTS
patent, October 1973

Adaptive gate video gray level measurement and tracker
patent, September 1975

Aluminum nitride single crystal growth from a molten mixture with calcium nitride
patent, January 1976

Adhesive tape bag closure
patent, February 1977

Method of making semiconductor superlattices free of misfit dislocations
patent, May 1978

Stable crystalline lithium nitride and process for its preparation
patent, November 1980

High thermal conductivity aluminum nitride ceramic body
patent, October 1985

Liquid encapsulated zone melting crystal growth method and apparatus
patent, October 1991

Aluminum nitride substrate for formation of thin-film conductor layer and semiconductor device using the substrate
patent, December 1991

Light-emitting diode with diagonal faces
patent, February 1992

Czochralski method using a member for intercepting radiation from raw material molten solution and apparatus therefor
patent, March 1994

Aluminum nitride substrate and method for producing same
patent, May 1994

Method for heat-treating a compound semiconductor
patent, February 1996

Method for enhancing aluminum nitride
patent, May 1996

Process for aluminum nitride powder production
patent, June 1996

Aluminum nitride film substrate and process for producing same
patent, November 1996

Integrated heterostructures of Group III-V nitride semiconductor materials including epitaxial ohmic contact non-nitride buffer layer and methods of fabricating same
patent, September 1997

Semiconductor package having an aluminum nitride substrate
patent, December 1997

Aluminum nitride sintered bodies
patent, March 1998

Method for growing a semiconductor single-crystal
patent, January 1999

Growth of bulk single crystals of aluminum nitride
patent, January 1999

Low temperature method of preparing GaN single crystals
patent, February 1999

Group III-V nitride semiconductor device
patent, June 1999

IC socket
patent, July 1999

Growth of bulk single crystals of aluminum nitride from a melt
patent, September 1999

Growth of bulk single crystals of aluminum nitride
patent, October 1999

Semiconductor laminating structure
patent, November 1999

Retractable stairs-like stand
patent, December 1999

Single crystal of nitride and process for preparing the same
patent, December 1999

Automated manual transmission controller
patent, December 1999

Growth of bulk single crystals of aluminum nitride
patent, April 2000

Simulated diamond gemstones formed of aluminum nitride and aluminum nitride: silicon carbide alloys
patent, April 2000

Production of bulk single crystals of aluminum nitride, silicon carbide and aluminum nitride: silicon carbide alloy
patent, May 2000

Growth of bulk single crystals of aluminum nitride from a melt
patent, May 2000

Growth of bulk single crystals of aluminum nitride: silicon carbide alloys
patent, July 2000

GaN LEDs with improved output coupling efficiency
patent, July 2000

Tungsten doped crucible and method for preparing same
patent, February 2001

Method for fabricating GaN substrate
patent, April 2001

Method of fabricating nitride crystal, mixture, liquid phase growth method, nitride crystal, nitride crystal powders, and vapor phase growth method
patent, August 2001

Bulk single crystals of aluminum nitride
patent, October 2001

Crystalline gallium nitride and method for forming crystalline gallium nitride
patent, June 2002

Method and apparatus for performing wavelength-conversion using phosphors with light emitting diodes
patent, June 2002

Method for Achieving Improved Epitaxy Quality (Surface Texture and Defect Density) on Free-Standing (Aluminum, Indium, Gallium) Nitride ((AL,IN,GA)N) Substrates for Opto-Electronic and Electronic Device
patent, September 2002

Method of growing single crystal GaN, method of making single crystal GaN substrate and single crystal GaN substrate
patent, October 2002

Nitride-based VCSEL or light emitting diode with p-n tunnel junction current injection
patent, February 2003

GaN-based devices using thick (Ga, Al, In)N base layers
patent, March 2003

Batch processing for semiconductor wafers to form aluminum nitride and titanium aluminum nitride
patent, April 2003

Production of a GaN bulk crystal substrate and a semiconductor device formed on a GaN bulk crystal substrate
patent, July 2003

III-V nitride substrate boule and method of making and using the same
patent, July 2003

Powder metallurgy tungsten crucible for aluminum nitride crystal growth
patent, April 2004

Method and apparatus for producing large, single-crystals of aluminum nitride
patent, August 2004

LED reflector for improved light extraction
patent, August 2004

Light emitting diodes including modifications for light extraction
patent, September 2004

Group III nitride LED with undoped cladding layer (5000.137)
patent, October 2004

Light emitting devices with improved extraction efficiency
patent, December 2004

Methods of bonding two aluminum-comprising masses to one another
patent, January 2005

Nitride semiconductor substrate and method for manufacturing the same, and nitride semiconductor device using nitride semiconductor substrate
patent, March 2005

Nitride semiconductor laser
patent, May 2005

Light-emitting diode (LED) with amorphous fluoropolymer encapsulant and lens
patent, July 2005

Bulk GaN and ALGaN single crystals
patent, August 2005

Ultraviolet-light-based disinfection reactor
patent, September 2005

Integrated reflector cup for a light emitting device mount
patent, February 2006

Light emitting diodes including pedestals
patent, April 2006

Method of manufacturing a semiconductor light-emitting element
patent, May 2006

Method for polishing a substrate surface
patent, May 2006

Tantalum based crucible
patent, June 2006

High pressure high temperature growth of crystalline group III metal nitrides
patent, June 2006

Nitride ceramics to mount aluminum nitride seed for sublimation growth
patent, August 2006

Semiconductor package having light sensitive chips
patent, August 2006

Increased light extraction from a nitride LED
patent, October 2006

Light emitting diodes (LEDs) with improved light extraction by roughening
patent, March 2007

Powder metallurgy crucible for aluminum nitride crystal growth
patent, May 2007

Light emitting device with patterned surfaces
patent, May 2007

Substrate for nitride semiconductor growth
patent, July 2007

Card type LED illumination source
patent, July 2007

Light emitting diode systems
patent, September 2007

III-V group nitride system semiconductor substrate
patent, October 2007

Method of manufacturing GaN crystals and GaN crystal substrate, GaN crystals and GaN crystal substrate obtained by the method, and semiconductor device including the same
patent, October 2007

Nitride based LED with a p-type injection region
patent, September 2008

Light emitting diodes including transparent oxide layers
patent, September 2008

Semiconductor light-emitting device and method for fabricating the same
patent, October 2008

Semiconductor light emitting device and method for manufacturing the same
patent, January 2009

Semiconductor light emitting devices and submounts
patent, April 2009

Method and apparatus for aluminum nitride monocrystal boule growth
patent, April 2009

Light-emitting apparatus
patent, June 2009

Lighting device package
patent, December 2009

Nitride semiconductor heterostructures and related methods
patent, December 2009

Doped aluminum nitride crystals and methods of making them
patent, January 2010

III group nitride semiconductor substrate, substrate for group III nitride semiconductor device, and fabrication methods thereof
patent, March 2010

Seeded growth process for preparing aluminum nitride single crystals
patent, March 2010

Nitride semiconductor substrate, and method for working nitride semiconductor substrate
patent, May 2010

Light emitting element structure using nitride bulk single crystal layer
patent, July 2010

Nitride gallium semiconductor substrate and nitride semiconductor epitaxial substrate
patent, July 2010

Method and apparatus for producing large, single-crystals of aluminum nitride
patent, August 2010

Aluminum nitride sintered body and semiconductor manufacturing apparatus member
patent, September 2010

Color control by alteration of wavelength converting element
patent, March 2011

Method of uniform phosphor chip coating and LED package fabricated using method
patent, May 2011

Light emitting device
patent, June 2011

Power surface mount light emitting die package
patent, July 2011

Methods for controllable doping of aluminum nitride bulk crystals
patent, September 2011

Thick pseudomorphic nitride epitaxial layers
patent, December 2011

Deep-eutectic melt growth of nitride crystals
patent, January 2012

Method and apparatus for producing large, single-crystals of aluminum nitride
patent, February 2012

Nitride semiconductor heterostructures and related methods
patent, July 2012

Defect reduction in seeded aluminum nitride crystal growth
patent, December 2012

Large aluminum nitride crystals with reduced defects and methods of making them
patent, January 2013

Method and apparatus for producing large, single-crystals of aluminum nitride
patent, October 2013

Large aluminum nitride crystals with reduced defects and methods of making them
patent, November 2013

Doped aluminum nitride crystals and methods of making them
patent-application, June 2014

Defect reduction in seeded aluminum nitride crystal growth
patent, September 2014

Method and apparatus for producing large, single-crystals of aluminum nitride
patent, November 2014

Led having angled sides for increased side light extraction
patent-application, April 2001

Method for growing nitride semiconductor crystals, nitride semiconductor device, and method for fabricating the same
patent-application, June 2001

Semiconductor device and method and apparatus for manufacturing semiconductor device
patent-application, September 2001

Use of CSOH in a Dielectric CMP Slurry
patent-application, December 2001

Light emitting diodes with improved light extraction efficiency
patent-application, March 2002

Method and apparatus for growing aluminum nitride monocrystals
patent-application, November 2002

Passivated nanoparticles, method of fabrication thereof, and devices incorporating nanoparticles
patent-application, March 2003

FCSEL that frequency doubles its output emissions using sum-frequency generation
patent-application, August 2003

Method and apparatus for producing large, single-crystals of aluminum nitride
patent-application, September 2003

III-V Nitride homoepitaxial material of improved MOVPE epitaxial quality (surface texture and defect density) formed on free-standing (Al,In,Ga)N substrates, and opto-electronic and electronic devices comprising same
patent-application, November 2003

Light-emitting gallium nitride-based compound semiconductor device
patent-application, November 2003

Method for polishing a substrate surface
patent-application, February 2004

Drain/source extension structure of a field effect transistor including doped high-k sidewall spacers
patent-application, June 2004

Gallium nitride material devices and methods of forming the same
patent-application, July 2004

Method of fabricating monocrystalline crystals
patent-application, September 2004

Strain compensated semiconductor structures
patent-application, October 2004

Nitride Semiconductor Layer Structure and a Nitride Semiconductor Laser Incorporating a Portion of Same
patent-application, October 2004

Methods of growing nitride-based film using varying pulses
patent-application, November 2004

Methods for machining ceramics
patent-application, November 2004

Homoepitaxial gallium-nitride-based light emitting device and method for producing
patent-application, December 2004

Light emitting element structure using nitride bulk single crystal layer
patent-application, December 2004

Discharge electrode, a discharge lamp and a method for manufacturing the discharge electrode
patent-application, March 2005

Group-III nitride semiconductor device
patent-application, April 2005

Large area, uniformly low dislocation density GaN substrate and process for making the same
patent-application, May 2005

Method and apparatus for fabricating crack-free Group III nitride semiconductor materials
patent-application, June 2005

AlxInyGa1-x-yN mixture crystal substrate, method of growing same and method of producing same
patent-application, July 2005

Bulk GaN and AlGaN single crystals
patent-application, July 2005

Fabrication of nonpolar indium gallium nitride thin films, heterostructures and devices by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
patent-application, September 2005

Surface treatment method and surface treatment device
patent-application, December 2005

Nitride single crystal and producing method thereof
patent-application, December 2005

Gallium nitride materials and methods associated with the same
patent-application, December 2005

Method and apparatus for producing large, single-crystals of aluminum nitride
patent-application, January 2006

High surface quality GaN wafer and method of fabricating same
patent-application, February 2006

Substrate for epitaxy and method of preparing the same
patent-application, March 2006

Compensating liquid delivery system and method
patent-application, August 2006

Binary group III-nitride based high electron mobility transistors and methods of fabricating same
patent-application, November 2006

Bonded intermediate substrate and method of making same
patent-application, November 2006

Method for manufacturing nitride-based semiconductor device
patent-application, December 2006

Polar surface preparation of nitride substrates
patent-application, December 2006

Light emitting diodes with high light extraction and high reflectivity
patent-application, January 2007

Photocrosslinked hydrogel surface coatings
patent-application, April 2007

Method and apparatus for producing large, single-crystals of aluminum nitride
patent-application, May 2007

High light extraction efficiency light emitting diode (LED)
patent-application, May 2007

Doped aluminum nitride crystals and methods of making them
patent-application, June 2007

Large aluminum nitride crystals with reduced defects and methods of making them
patent-application, June 2007

Water purifier
patent-application, July 2007

Method of Fabricating Light Emitting Device and Thus-Fabricated Light Emitting Device
patent-application, September 2007

Methods for controllable doping of aluminum nitride bulk crystals
patent-application, October 2007

Seeded growth process for preparing aluminum nitride single crystals
patent-application, November 2007

Method and apparatus for producing large, single-crystals of aluminum nitride
patent-application, January 2008

LED PACKAGE WITH CONVERGING EXTRACTOR
patent-application, January 2008

Light Emitting Devices with Improved Light Extraction Efficiency
patent-application, January 2008

PULSED GROWTH OF CATALYST-FREE GROWITH OF GaN NANOWIRES AND APPLICATION IN GROUP III NITRIDE SEMICONDUCTOR BULK MATERIAL
patent-application, February 2008

Light emitting packages and methods of making same
patent-application, March 2008

Compound semiconductor modified surface by use of pulsed electron beam and ion implantation through a deposited metal layer
patent-application, April 2008

Semiconductor Devices Having Low Threading Dislocations and Improved Light Extraction and Methods of Making the Same
patent-application, May 2008

Spatial localization of light-generating portions in LEDs
patent-application, June 2008

CHIP-SCALE METHODS FOR PACKAGING LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES AND CHIP-SCALE PACKAGED LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES
patent-application, June 2008

LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES WITH AN ELECTRICALLY ACTIVE TOP REFLECTOR CONTACT
patent-application, June 2008

SEMICONDUCTOR LIGHT EMITTING DEVICE, LIGHT EMITTING MODULE, LIGHTING APPARATUS, DISPLAY ELEMENT AND MANUFACTURING METHOD OF SEMICONDUCTOR LIGHT EMITTING DEVICE
patent-application, June 2008

LIGHT-EMITTING APPARATUS AND METHOD OF PRODUCING THE SAME
patent-application, June 2008

LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICES
patent-application, July 2008

Self-luminous device
patent-application, July 2008

DEFECT REDUCTION IN SEEDED ALUMINUM NITRIDE CRYSTAL GROWTH
patent-application, July 2008

Thick Pseudomorphic Nitride Epitaxial Layers
patent-application, August 2008

Methods of forming packaged semiconductor light emitting devices having front contacts by compression molding
patent-application, August 2008

SEMICONDUCTOR LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICE
patent-application, October 2008

Semiconductor light-emitting device, method for manufacturing the same, and light-emitting apparatus including the same
patent-application, October 2008

Light emitting diode chip
patent-application, October 2008

Semiconductor Light Emitting Device, Illumination Module, Illumination Apparatus, Method For Manufacturing Semiconductor Light Emitting Device, and Method For Manufacturing Semiconductor Light Emitting Element
patent-application, January 2009

PATTERNED LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES
patent-application, January 2009

Group III nitride-based compound semiconductor light emitting device
patent-application, February 2009

DEEP-EUTECTIC MELT GROWTH OF NITRIDE CRYSTALS
patent-application, February 2009

WHITE LIGHT LED WITH MULTIPLE ENCAPSULATION LAYERS
patent-application, March 2009

METHOD OF MAKING AN LED DEVICE HAVING A DOME LENS
patent-application, March 2009

LIGHT EMITTING DEVICE
patent-application, March 2009

LED with current confinement structure and surface roughening
patent-application, May 2009

HIGH LIGHT EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED) USING GLASS PACKAGING
patent-application, May 2009

Substrate-free light emitting diode chip
patent-application, June 2009

LIGHT OUTPUT ENHANCED GALLIUM NITRIDE BASED THIN LIGHT EMITTING DIODE
patent-application, June 2009

PROTECTION OF SIGE DURING ETCH AND CLEAN OPERATIONS
patent-application, June 2009

NITRIDE SEMICONDUCTOR SUBSTRATE AND METHOD OF PRODUCING SAME
patent-application, June 2009

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE STRUCTURE AND METHOD FOR FABRICATING THE SAME
patent-application, June 2009

LIGHT EMITTING DEVICE
patent-application, July 2009

LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY PHOSPOR STRUCTURES
patent-application, July 2009

Led with substrate modifications for enhanced light extraction and method of making same
patent-application, September 2009

AlGaN SUBSTRATE AND PRODUCTION METHOD THEREOF
patent-application, September 2009

LEDs using single crystalline phosphor and methods of fabricating same
patent-application, October 2009

SEMICONDUCTOR LIGHT EMITTING DEVICE AND METHOD FOR FABRICATING THE SAME
patent-application, October 2009

SEMICONDUCTOR LIGHT EMITTING DEVICE
patent-application, October 2009

LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE AND METHOD FOR FABRICATION THEREOF
patent-application, November 2009

NITRIDE SEMICONDUCTOR HETEROSTRUCTURES AND RELATED METHODS
patent-application, November 2009

Light emitting elements, light emitting devices including light emitting elements and methods of manufacturing such light emitting elements and/or devices
patent-application, December 2009

LED WITH IMPROVED EXTERNAL LIGHT EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY
patent-application, December 2009

SEMICONDUCTOR LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICE
patent-application, December 2009

LIGHT EMITTING DEVICE
patent-application, January 2010

Diode having high brightness and method thereof
patent-application, January 2010

HIGHLY EFFICIENT GALLIUM NITRIDE BASED LIGHT EMITTING DIODES VIA SURFACE ROUGHENING
patent-application, February 2010

BOND PAD DESIGN FOR ENHANCING LIGHT EXTRACTION FROM LED CHIPS
patent-application, February 2010

NITRIDE SEMICONDUCTOR HETEROSTRUCTURES AND RELATED METHODS
patent-application, June 2010

Doped Aluminum Nitride Crystals and Methods of Making Them
patent-application, July 2010

THICK PSEUDOMORPHIC NITRIDE EPITAXIAL LAYERS
patent-application, October 2010

In-line Fluid Treatment by UV Radiation
patent-application, December 2010

ALUMINUM NITRIDE BULK CRYSTALS HAVING HIGH TRANSPARENCY TO ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT AND METHODS OF FORMING THEM
patent-application, January 2011

LIGHT EMITTING DIODES WITH SMOOTH SURFACE FOR REFLECTIVE ELECTRODE
patent-application, January 2011

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING LARGE, SINGLE-CRYSTALS OF ALUMINUM NITRIDE
patent-application, January 2011

POLYCRYSTALLINE ALUMINUM NITRIDE MATERIAL AND METHOD OF PRODUCTION THEREOF
patent-application, January 2012

THICK PSEUDOMORPHIC NITRIDE EPITAXIAL LAYERS
patent-application, May 2012

LARGE ALUMINUM NITRIDE CRYSTALS WITH REDUCED DEFECTS AND METHODS OF MAKING THEM
patent-application, June 2013

DEFECT REDUCTION IN SEEDED ALUMINUM NITRIDE CRYSTAL GROWTH
patent-application, June 2013

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING LARGE, SINGLE-CRYSTALS OF ALUMINUM NITRIDE
patent-application, March 2014

LARGE ALUMINUM NITRIDE CRYSTALS WITH REDUCED DEFECTS AND METHODS OF MAKING THEM
patent-application, April 2014

PHOTON EXTRACTION FROM NITRIDE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICES
patent-application, July 2014

DOPED ALUMINUM NITRIDE CRYSTALS AND METHODS OF MAKING THEM
patent-application, August 2014

PSEUDOMORPHIC ELECTRONIC AND OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES HAVING PLANAR CONTACTS
patent-application, September 2014

On the preparation, optical properties and electrical behaviour of aluminium nitride
journal, April 1967
  • Cox, G. A.; Cummins, D. O.; Kawabe, K.
  • Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, Vol. 28, Issue 4, p. 543-548
  • DOI: 10.1016/0022-3697(67)90084-4

Characterization of Aluminum Nitride Crystals Grown by Sublimation
journal, December 2001

Some effects of oxygen impurities on AlN and GaN
journal, December 2002
  • Slack, Glen A.; Schowalter, Leo J.; Morelli, Donald
  • Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 246, Issue 3-4, p. 287-298
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0022-0248(02)01753-0

Effect of point defects on the decay of the longitudinal optical mode
journal, May 2002

Photoluminescence studies of impurity transitions in AlGaN alloys
journal, August 2006
  • Nepal, N.; Nakarmi, M. L.; Lin, J. Y.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, Issue 9, Article No. 092107
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2337856

Sublimation growth and characterization of bulk aluminum nitride single crystals
journal, August 1997
  • Balkaş, Cengiz M.; Sitar, Zlatko; Zheleva, Tsvetanka
  • Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 179, Issue 3-4, p. 363-370
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0022-0248(97)00160-7

Ir/Ag reflector for high-performance GaN-based near UV light emitting diodes
journal, August 2006
  • Ban, Keun-Yong; Hong, Hyun-Gi; Noh, Do-Young
  • Materials Science and Engineering: B, Vol. 133, Issue 1-3, p. 26-29
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.mseb.2006.04.045

Characterization of bulk AlN with low oxygen content
journal, September 2004

Point defect content and optical transitions in bulk aluminum nitride crystals
journal, June 2009
  • Bickermann, Matthias; Epelbaum, Boris M.; Filip, Octavian
  • physica status solidi (b), Vol. 246, Issue 6, p. 1181-1183
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssb.200880753

Structural and optical properties of near-UV LEDs grown on V-grooved sapphire substrates fabricated by wet etching
journal, January 2007

Milliwatt power AlGaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes
journal, November 2003
  • Chitnis, A.; Adivarahan, V.; Zhang, J. P.
  • physica status solidi (a), Vol. 200, Issue 1, p. 99-101
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssa.200303420

Efficiency enhancement of UV/blue light emitting diodes via nanoscaled epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN on a SiO2 nanorod-array patterned sapphire substrate
journal, November 2008

Lattice Vibration Spectra of Aluminum Nitride
journal, June 1967
  • Collins, A. T.; Lightowlers, E. C.; Dean, P. J.
  • Physical Review, Vol. 158, Issue 3, p. 833-838
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRev.158.833

Phase equilibria pertinent to the growth of cubic boron nitride
journal, May 1972

Ultraviolet electroluminescence from ordered ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN light emitting diodes
journal, April 2012
  • Dong, J. J.; Zhang, X. W.; Yin, Z. G.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, Issue 17, Article No. 171109
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4706259

The estimation of maximum growth rate for aluminium nitride crystals grown by direct sublimation
journal, November 1992

The synthesis of aluminum nitride single crystals
journal, March 1974

Sublimation Growth of Bulk AlN Crystals: Materials Compatibility and Crystal Quality
journal, January 2002

Properties of Bulk AlN grown by thermodecomposition of AlCl3⋅NH3
journal, September 2003
  • Freitas, J. A.; Braga, G. C. B.; Silveira, E.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 83, Issue 13, p. 2584-2586
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1614418

Optical studies of bulk and homoepitaxial films of III–V nitride semiconductors
journal, July 2005

Electrical conductivity of materials from mixed aluminum and silicon nitrides
journal, November 1970
  • Gorbatov, A. G.; Kamyshov, V. M.
  • Soviet Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics, Vol. 9, Issue 11, p. 917-920
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00803792

The formation of nanopipes caused by donor impurities in GaN: A theoretical study for the case of oxygen
journal, March 1999

Photoluminescence Intensity and Spectral Distribution of GaN Films on SiC Substrates — The Dependence on Dislocation Density and Structure
journal, November 1999

Fabrication of moth-eye structure on p-GaN layer of GaN-based LEDs for improvement of light extraction
journal, July 2009
  • Hong, Eun-Ju; Byeon, Kyeong-Jae; Park, Hyoungwon
  • Materials Science and Engineering: B, Vol. 163, Issue 3, p. 170-173
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.mseb.2009.05.018

Improvement of light extraction efficiency of UV-LED grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN
journal, November 2003
  • Iwaya, M.; Takanami, S.; Miyazaki, A.
  • physica status solidi (a), Vol. 200, Issue 1, p. 110-113
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssa.200303504

The luminescence properties of AlN with manganese and rare earth activators under ultraviolet and cathode-ray excitation
journal, January 1970
  • Karel, F.; Pastrňák, J.
  • Czechoslovak Journal of Physics B, Vol. 20, Issue 1, p. 46-55
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF01698106

Equilibrium pressure of N2 over GaN and high pressure solution growth of GaN
journal, January 1984

Sublimation Growth of AlN in Vacuum and in a Gas Atmosphere
journal, November 1999

Phonon dynamics in AlN lattice contaminated by oxygen
journal, October 2006

Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays
journal, February 2009

The BeO — MgO system
journal, January 1964

Thick AlN layers grown by HVPE
journal, July 2005

A Global Growth Rate Model for Aluminum Nitride Sublimation
journal, January 2002
  • Liu, Lianghong; Edgar, J. H.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 149, Issue 1, p. G12-G15
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.1421349

Enhancement of (AlGaIn)N near-UV LED efficiency using freestanding GaN substrate
journal, May 2008
  • Maier, M.; Köhler, K.; Kunzer, M.
  • physica status solidi (c), Vol. 5, Issue 6, p. 2133-2135
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssc.200778475

Defects in epitaxial multilayers: I. Misfit dislocations
journal, December 1974

Defects and defect identification in group III-nitrides
journal, February 2000

Sublimation growth of AlN bulk crystals in Ta crucibles
journal, July 2005

Effects of Al composition on luminescence properties of europium implanted AlxGa1−xN (0 ≤ x ≤ 1)
journal, December 2003
  • Nakanishi, Y.; Wakahara, A.; Okada, H.
  • physica status solidi (c), Vol. 0, Issue 7, p. 2623-2626
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssc.200303440

Photoluminescence studies of impurity transitions in Mg-doped AlGaN alloys
journal, March 2009
  • Nakarmi, M. L.; Nepal, N.; Lin, J. Y.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, Issue 9, Article No. 091903
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3094754

Deep impurity transitions involving cation vacancies and complexes in AlGaN alloys
journal, May 2005
  • Nam, K. B.; Nakarmi, M. L.; Lin, J. Y.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 86, Issue 22, Article No. 222108
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1943489

Recent Developments in Nitride Chemistry
journal, October 1998
  • Niewa, R.; DiSalvo, F. J.
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 10, Issue 10, p. 2733-2752
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm980137c

340–350 nm GaN-free UV-LEDs
journal, November 2003
  • Nishida, T.; Ban, T.; Kobayashi, N.
  • physica status solidi (a), Vol. 200, Issue 1, p. 106-109
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssa.200303411

Mass transfer in AlN crystal growth at high temperatures
journal, March 2004

Study on photoluminescence of GaN-based UV-LEDs with refractive index gradient polymeric nanopatterns
journal, July 2011

Synchrotron white beam topography characterization of physical vapor transport grown AlN and ammonothermal GaN
journal, December 2002
  • Raghothamachar, Balaji; Vetter, William M.; Dudley, Michael
  • Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 246, Issue 3-4, p. 271-280
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0022-0248(02)01751-7

X-ray characterization of bulk AIN single crystals grown by the sublimation technique
journal, March 2003

Growth and characterization of epitaxial layers on aluminum nitride substrates prepared from bulk, single crystals
journal, May 2002
  • Carlos Rojo, J.; Schowalter, Leo J.; Gaska, Remis
  • Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 240, Issue 3-4, p. 508-512
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0022-0248(02)01078-3

Progress in the Preparation of Aluminum Nitride Substrates from Bulk Crystals
journal, January 2002

Report on the growth of bulk aluminum nitride and subsequent substrate preparation
journal, October 2001

Reduction of oxygen contamination in AlN
journal, December 2003
  • Salzman, J.; Prawer, S.; Meyler, B.
  • physica status solidi (c), Vol. 0, Issue 7, p. 2541-2544
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssc.200303387

Crucible materials for growth of aluminum nitride crystals
journal, July 2005

Seeded growth of AlN bulk single crystals by sublimation
journal, June 2002

Comparison of various buffer schemes to grow GaN on large-area Si(111) substrates using metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition
journal, May 2003
  • Venugopal, R.; Wan, J.; Melloch, M.
  • Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 32, Issue 5, p. 371-374
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11664-003-0160-9

Synthesis of the Cubic Form of Boron Nitride
journal, March 1961
  • Wentorf, R. H.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 34, Issue 3, p. 809-812
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1731679

Low resistivity aluminum nitride: carbon (AlN : C) films grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition
journal, March 1996

Preparation of GaN Single Crystals Using a Na Flux
journal, February 1997
  • Yamane, Hisanori; Shimada, Masahiko; Clarke, Simon J.
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 9, Issue 2, p. 413-416
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm960494s

Growth of nitride crystals, BN, AlN and GaN by using a Na flux
journal, April 2000

Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes
journal, February 2011

Seeded growth of AlN single crystals by physical vapor transport
journal, January 2006

Very low dislocation density AlN substrates for device applications
conference, February 2006
  • Schujman, Sandra B.; Schowalter, Leo J.; Liu, Wayne
  • Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices, Vol. 6121
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.658180

Investigation of Oxygen-Related Luminescence Centres in AlN Ceramics
journal, May 2000

Photoluminescence properties of AlN homoepilayers with different orientations
journal, July 2008
  • Sedhain, A.; Nepal, N.; Nakarmi, M. L.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, Issue 4, Article No. 041905
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2965613

On mechanisms of sublimation growth of AlN bulk crystals
journal, April 2000

III-nitride blue and UV photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes
conference, October 2004
  • Shakya, Jagat B.; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Oder, Tom N.
  • Fourth International Conference on Solid State Lighting, Vol. 5530
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.565632

Luminescence properties of wurtzite AlN nanotips
journal, October 2006
  • Shi, Shih-Chen; Chen, Chia Fu; Chattopadhyay, Surojit
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, Issue 16, Article No. 163127
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2364158

High-quality and crack-free AlxGa1−xN (x∼0.2) grown on sapphire by a two-step growth method
journal, April 2005

Physical vapor transport growth of large AlN crystals
journal, March 2003

Ain single crystals
journal, December 1977

Growth of high purity AlN crystals
journal, July 1976

The growth and optical properties of large, high-quality AlN single crystals
journal, November 2004
  • Strassburg, Martin; Senawiratne, Jayantha; Dietz, Nikolaus
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 96, Issue 10, p. 5870-5876
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1801159

Phase relationships in the system Y-A1-O-N
journal, May 1991

Degradation in AlGaInN lasers
journal, December 2003
  • Takeya, Motonobu; Mizuno, Takashi; Sasaki, Tomomi
  • physica status solidi (c), Vol. 0, Issue 7, p. 2292-2295
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssc.200303324

An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres
journal, May 2006
  • Taniyasu, Yoshitaka; Kasu, Makoto; Makimoto, Toshiki
  • Nature, Vol. 441, Issue 7091, p. 325-328
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature04760

Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Gallium Nitride
journal, January 2002
  • Tavernier, P. R.; Margalith, T.; Coldren, L. A.
  • Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, Vol. 5, Issue 8, p. G61-G64
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.1485807

Determination of the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the AlN lattice by hot gas extraction from AlN ceramics
journal, January 1991

Dislocations in GaN-Based Laser Diodes on Epitaxial Lateral Overgrown GaN Layers
journal, November 2001

Stimulated luminescence of AlN ceramics induced by ultraviolet radiation
journal, October 2001

Solid-state lighting: lamps, chips, and materials for tomorrow
journal, May 2004

Similar records in DOepatents and OSTI.GOV collections: