DOE Patents title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Photon extraction from nitride ultraviolet light-emitting devices


In various embodiments, a rigid lens is attached to a light-emitting semiconductor die via a layer of encapsulant having a thickness insufficient to prevent propagation of thermal expansion mismatch-induced strain between the rigid lens and the semiconductor die.

; ;
Issue Date:
Research Org.:
Crystal IS, Inc., Green Island, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Patent Number(s):
Application Number:
Crystal IS, Inc. (Green Island, NY)
Patent Classifications (CPCs):
DOE Contract Number:  
Resource Type:
Resource Relation:
Patent File Date: 2012 Jul 19
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Schowalter, Leo J, Chen, Jianfeng, and Grandusky, James R. Photon extraction from nitride ultraviolet light-emitting devices. United States: N. p., 2015. Web.
Schowalter, Leo J, Chen, Jianfeng, & Grandusky, James R. Photon extraction from nitride ultraviolet light-emitting devices. United States.
Schowalter, Leo J, Chen, Jianfeng, and Grandusky, James R. Tue . "Photon extraction from nitride ultraviolet light-emitting devices". United States.
title = {Photon extraction from nitride ultraviolet light-emitting devices},
author = {Schowalter, Leo J and Chen, Jianfeng and Grandusky, James R},
abstractNote = {In various embodiments, a rigid lens is attached to a light-emitting semiconductor die via a layer of encapsulant having a thickness insufficient to prevent propagation of thermal expansion mismatch-induced strain between the rigid lens and the semiconductor die.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {2}

Works referenced in this record:

Improved dc characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors on AlN/sapphire templates
journal, August 2002

Sublimation growth and characterization of bulk aluminum nitride single crystals
journal, August 1997

Characterization of bulk AlN with low oxygen content
journal, September 2004

Milliwatt power AlGaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes
journal, November 2003

Mixing Rocksalt and Wurtzite Structure Binary Nitrides to Form Novel Ternary Alloys: ScGaN and MnGaN
journal, January 2003

On the preparation, optical properties and electrical behaviour of aluminium nitride
journal, April 1967

Phase equilibria pertinent to the growth of cubic boron nitride
journal, May 1972

The estimation of maximum growth rate for aluminium nitride crystals grown by direct sublimation
journal, November 1992

The synthesis of aluminum nitride single crystals
journal, March 1974

Sublimation Growth of Bulk AlN Crystals: Materials Compatibility and Crystal Quality
journal, January 2002

Electrical conductivity of materials from mixed aluminum and silicon nitrides
journal, November 1970

Highly Si-doped AlN grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy
journal, May 2005

Pinholes, Dislocations and Strain Relaxation in InGaN
journal, January 1998

n-type AlN layer by Si ion implantation
journal, May 2006

The luminescence properties of AlN with manganese and rare earth activators under ultraviolet and cathode-ray excitation
journal, January 1970

Equilibrium pressure of N2 over GaN and high pressure solution growth of GaN
journal, January 1984

Sublimation Growth of AlN in Vacuum and in a Gas Atmosphere
journal, November 1999

Formation of Solid Solution of Al1-xSixN (0<x≤ 12%) Ternary Alloy
journal, October 2001

The BeO — MgO system
journal, January 1964

A Global Growth Rate Model for Aluminum Nitride Sublimation
journal, January 2002

Characterization of Aluminum Nitride Crystals Grown by Sublimation
journal, December 2001

Dimers [Al2N6]12- and Chains 1∞[AlN4/23-] in the Crystal Structures of Ca6[Al2N6] and Ba3[Al2N4]
journal, April 1999

Misfit Dislocation Generation in InGaN Epilayers on Free-Standing GaN
journal, June 2006

Defects in epitaxial multilayers: I. Misfit dislocations
journal, December 1974

Sublimation growth of AlN bulk crystals in Ta crucibles
journal, July 2005

Effects of Al composition on luminescence properties of europium implanted AlxGa1−xN (0 ≤ x ≤ 1)
journal, December 2003

Li3[ScN2]: The First Nitridoscandate(III)—Tetrahedral Sc Coordination and Unusual MX2 Framework
journal, September 2003

Growth of AlN crystals on AlN/SiC seeds by AlN powder sublimation in nitrogen atmosphere
journal, January 2004

Recent Developments in Nitride Chemistry
journal, October 1998

Mass transfer in AlN crystal growth at high temperatures
journal, March 2004

Phase relationships in the system Y-A1-O-N
journal, May 1991

Determination of the critical layer thickness in the InGaN/GaN heterostructures
journal, November 1999

Synchrotron white beam topography characterization of physical vapor transport grown AlN and ammonothermal GaN
journal, December 2002

Growth and characterization of epitaxial layers on aluminum nitride substrates prepared from bulk, single crystals
journal, May 2002

Report on the growth of bulk aluminum nitride and subsequent substrate preparation
journal, October 2001

Growth of AlN bulk crystals from the vapor phase
journal, January 2001

Seeded growth of AlN bulk single crystals by sublimation
journal, June 2002

Fabrication of native, single-crystal AlN substrates
journal, December 2003

On mechanisms of sublimation growth of AlN bulk crystals
journal, April 2000

High-quality and crack-free AlxGa1−xN (x∼0.2) grown on sapphire by a two-step growth method
journal, April 2005

Physical vapor transport growth of large AlN crystals
journal, March 2003

Ain single crystals
journal, December 1977

Growth of high purity AlN crystals
journal, July 1976

Properties of Crucible Materials for Bulk Growth of AlN
journal, January 2003

Some effects of oxygen impurities on AlN and GaN
journal, December 2002

AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on insulating AlGaN nucleation layers
journal, July 1999

Strain relaxation due to V-pit formation in InxGa1−xN∕GaN epilayers grown on sapphire
journal, October 2005

Optical Properties of Strained AlGaN and GaInN on GaN
journal, February 1997

Degradation in AlGaInN lasers
journal, December 2003

An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres
journal, May 2006

Intentional control of n -type conduction for Si-doped AlN and AlXGa1−XN (0.42⩽x<1)
journal, August 2002

Dislocations in GaN-Based Laser Diodes on Epitaxial Lateral Overgrown GaN Layers
journal, November 2001

Doping of Aigan Alloys
journal, January 1998

DX -center formation in wurtzite and zinc-blende Al x Ga 1 x N
journal, January 1998

Comparison of various buffer schemes to grow GaN on large-area Si(111) substrates using metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition
journal, May 2003

Synthesis of the Cubic Form of Boron Nitride
journal, March 1961

Preparation of GaN Single Crystals Using a Na Flux
journal, February 1997

DX -behavior of Si in AlN
journal, June 2000

Seeded growth of AlN single crystals by physical vapor transport
journal, January 2006

F-Type Centers in Neutron-Irradiated AIN
journal, January 1990

Luminescence mechanisms of oxygen-related defects in AlN
journal, January 2002

Point defect content and optical transitions in bulk aluminum nitride crystals
journal, June 2009

PVT growth of bulk AlN crystals with low oxygen contamination
journal, December 2003

Polarization-dependent below band-gap optical absorption of aluminum nitride bulk crystals
journal, April 2008

Deep level defects and doping in high Al mole fraction AlGaN
journal, January 2003

  • Bradley, S. T.; Goss, S. H.; Brillson, L. J.
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 21, Issue 6

Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Gallium Nitride
journal, January 2002

Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence
journal, November 1997

Lattice Vibration Spectra of Aluminum Nitride
journal, June 1967

Native oxide and hydroxides and their implications for bulk AlN crystal growth
journal, August 2008

Electron paramagnetic resonance of a donor in aluminum nitride crystals
journal, February 2006

Shallow donors in GaN
journal, November 2003

Properties of Bulk AlN grown by thermodecomposition of AlCl3⋅NH3
journal, September 2003

Optical studies of bulk and homoepitaxial films of III–V nitride semiconductors
journal, July 2005

The formation of nanopipes caused by donor impurities in GaN: A theoretical study for the case of oxygen
journal, March 1999

Electron Paramagnetic Center in Neutron-Irradiated AlN
journal, April 1990

Study of cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of aluminum nitride
conference, September 1996

Optical properties of AlN determined by vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry data
journal, November 1999

Oxygen behavior in aluminum nitride
journal, November 2005

Effect of point defects on the decay of the longitudinal optical mode
journal, May 2002

Thick AlN layers grown by HVPE
journal, July 2005

Optically detected electron paramagnetic resonance of AlN single crystals
journal, January 1999

Metastability of Oxygen Donors in AlGaN
journal, May 1998

Defects and defect identification in group III-nitrides
journal, February 2000

Optical Absorption and Cathodoluminescence of Epitaxial Aluminum Nitride Films
journal, July 1982

Electron Spin Resonance Analysis of Lattice Defects in Polycrystalline Aluminum Nitride
journal, June 1997

Photoluminescence studies of impurity transitions in Mg-doped AlGaN alloys
journal, March 2009

Deep impurity transitions involving cation vacancies and complexes in AlGaN alloys
journal, May 2005

Optical properties of the nitrogen vacancy in AlN epilayers
journal, February 2004

Photoluminescence studies of impurity transitions in AlGaN alloys
journal, August 2006

Low resistivity aluminum nitride: carbon (AlN : C) films grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition
journal, March 1996

Correlation between biaxial stress and free exciton transition in AlN epilayers
journal, September 2007

The optical absorption edge of single‐crystal AlN prepared by a close‐spaced vapor process
journal, August 1978

Reduction of oxygen contamination in AlN
journal, December 2003

Effect of Impurities on Raman and Photoluminescence Spectra of AlN Bulk Crystals
journal, January 2003

Crucible materials for growth of aluminum nitride crystals
journal, July 2005

Phonon dynamics in AlN lattice contaminated by oxygen
journal, October 2006

Excitonic structure of bulk AlN from optical reflectivity and cathodoluminescence measurements
journal, January 2005

Growth of nitride crystals, BN, AlN and GaN by using a Na flux
journal, April 2000

Investigation of Oxygen-Related Luminescence Centres in AlN Ceramics
journal, May 2000

Photoluminescence properties of AlN homoepilayers with different orientations
journal, July 2008

Luminescence properties of wurtzite AlN nanotips
journal, October 2006

Theoretical investigation of native defects, impurities, and complexes in aluminum nitride
journal, April 2002

The growth and optical properties of large, high-quality AlN single crystals
journal, November 2004

Determination of the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the AlN lattice by hot gas extraction from AlN ceramics
journal, January 1991

Radiation induced recombination processes in AIN ceramics
journal, September 2001

Stimulated luminescence of AlN ceramics induced by ultraviolet radiation
journal, October 2001

Spectral properties of AIN ceramics
conference, February 1997

Characterization of bulk AlN crystals with positron annihilation spectroscopy
journal, August 2008

The nitrogen vacancy in aluminium nitride
journal, January 2006

First-principles calculations for defects and impurities: Applications to III-nitrides
journal, April 2004

Changes in optical transmittance and surface morphology of AlN thin films exposed to atmosphere
journal, October 1998

Codoping method for the fabrication of low-resistivity wide band-gap semiconductors in p-type GaN, p-type AlN and n-type diamond: prediction versus experiment
journal, September 2001

X-ray characterization of bulk AIN single crystals grown by the sublimation technique
journal, March 2003

Deep-ultraviolet emission of AlGaN/AlN quantum wells on bulk AlN
journal, December 2002

Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes
journal, February 2011

Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays
journal, February 2009

Light Output Enhancement of UV Light-Emitting Diodes With Embedded Distributed Bragg Reflector
journal, May 2011

Optimizing textured structures possessing both optical gradient and diffraction properties to increase the extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes
journal, October 2012

Improved Efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes
journal, June 2010

Fabrication of moth-eye structure on p-GaN layer of GaN-based LEDs for improvement of light extraction
journal, July 2009

Structural and optical properties of near-UV LEDs grown on V-grooved sapphire substrates fabricated by wet etching
journal, January 2007

High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Light-Emitting Diodes with Moth-Eye Structure
journal, October 2005

Enhanced light output of GaN-based near-UV light-emitting diodes by using nanopatterned indium tin oxide electrodes
journal, March 2006

Ultraviolet electroluminescence from ordered ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN light emitting diodes
journal, April 2012

III-nitride blue and UV photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes
conference, October 2004

Light Extraction Methods in Light-Emitting Diodes
conference, January 2011

Ir/Ag reflector for high-performance GaN-based near UV light emitting diodes
journal, August 2006

Indium–Tin Oxide/Al Reflective Electrodes for Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes
journal, March 2012

Enhancement of near-UV GaN LED light extraction efficiency by GaN/sapphire template patterning
journal, July 2012

Improvement of light extraction efficiency of UV-LED grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN
journal, November 2003

Enhancement of (AlGaIn)N near-UV LED efficiency using freestanding GaN substrate
journal, May 2008

Study on photoluminescence of GaN-based UV-LEDs with refractive index gradient polymeric nanopatterns
journal, July 2011

Growth of flat p-GaN contact layer by pulse flow method for high light-extraction AlGaN deep-UV LEDs with Al-based electrode
journal, February 2012

AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%
journal, July 2012

Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector
journal, February 2010

AlGaN-Based 355 nm UV Light-Emitting Diodes with High Power Efficiency
journal, February 2012

340–350 nm GaN-free UV-LEDs
journal, November 2003

InGaN/AlGaN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode with a Ti 3 O 5 /Al 2 O 3 Distributed Bragg Reflector
journal, December 2008

Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes
journal, November 2011

Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate
journal, January 2007