skip to main content
DOE Patents title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Cascade redox flow battery systems

Abstract

A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

Inventors:
; ; ; ;
Issue Date:
Research Org.:
Enervault Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1149689
Patent Number(s):
8,785,023
Application Number:
12/986,892
Assignee:
Enervault Corporation (Sunnyvale, CA)
DOE Contract Number:  
OE0000225
Resource Type:
Patent
Resource Relation:
Patent File Date: 2011 Jan 07
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

Horne, Craig R., Kinoshita, Kim, Hickey, Darren B., Sha, Jay E., and Bose, Deepak. Cascade redox flow battery systems. United States: N. p., 2014. Web.
Horne, Craig R., Kinoshita, Kim, Hickey, Darren B., Sha, Jay E., & Bose, Deepak. Cascade redox flow battery systems. United States.
Horne, Craig R., Kinoshita, Kim, Hickey, Darren B., Sha, Jay E., and Bose, Deepak. Tue . "Cascade redox flow battery systems". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1149689.
@article{osti_1149689,
title = {Cascade redox flow battery systems},
author = {Horne, Craig R. and Kinoshita, Kim and Hickey, Darren B. and Sha, Jay E. and Bose, Deepak},
abstractNote = {A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {7}
}

Patent:

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Vanadium redox battery cell stack
patent-application, March 2007


Metal-Air Flow Cell
patent-application, December 2010


Buck-Boost Circuit
patent-application, April 2011


Optical Leak Detection Sensor
patent-application, April 2011


High Performance Flow Battery
patent-application, October 2011


Redox Flow Battery
patent-application, May 2012


Synthesis of carbon nanotubes in graphite microchannels in gas-flow and submerged-in-liquid reactors
journal, August 2010


Modification of Daramic, microporous separator, for redox flow battery applications
journal, December 1992

  • Chieng, S. C.; Kazacos, M.; Skyllas-Kazacos, M.
  • Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 75, Issue 1-2, p. 81-91
  • DOI: 10.1016/0376-7388(92)80008-8

Development of a 0.1 kW power accumulation pilot plant based on an Fe/Cr redox flow battery Part I. Considerations on flow-distribution design
journal, March 1994


Scale-up studies of an Fe/Cr redox flow battery based on shunt current analysis
journal, July 1992

  • Codina, G.; Aldaz, A.
  • Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, Vol. 22, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF01092617

Development of bipolar plates for fuel cells from graphite filled wet-lay material and a thermoplastic laminate skin layer
journal, March 2007


Synthesis of nanosized zirconium carbide by a sol–gel route
journal, January 2007

  • Dollé, Mickael; Gosset, Dominique; Bogicevic, Christine
  • Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol. 27, Issue 4, p. 2061-2067
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2006.06.005

Effect of pulsed flow on the performance of carbon felt electrode
journal, January 2002


Advancements in the Direct Hydrogen Redox Fuel Cell
journal, January 2008

  • Fatih, Khalid; Wilkinson, David P.; Moraw, Franz
  • Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, Vol. 11, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2812788

A Mathematical Model for the Iron/Chromium Redox Battery
journal, January 1984

  • Fedkiw, Peter S.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 131, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2115676

Reticulated vitreous carbon as an electrode material
journal, January 2004


Hydrodynamic Behavior of a Filter-Press Electrochemical Reactor with Carbon Felt As a Three-Dimensional Electrode
journal, November 1998

  • González-García, José; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio
  • Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 37, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1021/ie980144a

Characterization of a carbon felt electrode: structural and physical properties
journal, January 1999

  • González-García, J.; Bonete, P.; Expósito, E.
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1039/A805823G

Carbon Fiber Electrode for Redox Flow Battery
journal, January 1987

  • Inoue, M.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 134, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2100549

Possible use of vanadium redox-flow batteries for energy storage in small grids and stand-alone photovoltaic systems
journal, March 2004


Chemical and Electrochemical Behavior of the Cr(III)/Cr(II) Half-Cell in the Iron-Chromium Redox Energy Storage System
journal, January 1985

  • Johnson, David A.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 132, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2114015

Ligand Bridging in the Oxidation of Chromium(II) at Mercury Electrodes.
journal, May 1964


Electrical leakage currents in bipolar cell stacks
journal, March 1980

  • Kuhn, A. T.; Booth, J. S.
  • Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, Vol. 10, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00726091

The photochemical oxidation of ascorbic acid in solutions containing oxalic acid. II.—Mechanism of the reaction
journal, February 1956

  • Lampitt, L. H.; Baker, L. C.; Wittenberg, E.
  • Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 7, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.2740070205

Pressure electrical contact improved by carbon black paste
journal, March 2004


Behaviour of the Cr(III)/Cr(II) reaction on goldgraphite electrodes. Application to redox flow storage cell
journal, October 1991


Optimization studies on a Fe/Cr redox flow battery
journal, January 1992


Electrocatalysis of redox reactions by metal nanoparticles on graphite electrodes
journal, May 2001

  • Mayer, Peter; Holze, Rudolf
  • Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, Vol. 5, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1007/s100080000169

Bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells
journal, May 2003


Overcharge in the vanadium redox battery and changes in electrical resistivity and surface functionality of graphite-felt electrodes
journal, November 1994


Injection moulding of graphite composite bipolar plates
journal, March 2006


Mass Transport and Potential Studies in a Flow-through Porous Electrode Reactor: A Comparative Study of Reticulated Vitreous Carbon and Graphite Felt Used as Cathode
journal, January 2009

  • Nava, J. L.; Recéndiz, A.; González, L. G.
  • Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 27, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.4152/pea.200903381

Permeation of vanadium cations through anionic and cationic membranes
journal, March 1985

  • Oei, Djong-Gie
  • Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, Vol. 15, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00620938

Treatment of Waste Pickling Liquors: Process Synthesis and Economic Analysis
journal, May 2006

  • Özdemir, T.; Öztin, C.; Kıncal, N. S.
  • Chemical Engineering Communications, Vol. 193, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1080/00986440500192238

Redox flow cells for energy conversion
journal, September 2006

  • Ponce de Leon, C.; Frias-Ferrer, A.; Gonzalez-Garcia, J.
  • Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 160, Issue 1, p. 716-732
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.02.095