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Title: Fluorescence based biosensor

Abstract

A novel biosensor comprises at least one fluorophore and at least two quenchers, and is capable of selectively and specifically detecting the presence of an ion in the presence of other ions.

Inventors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Champaign, IL
  2. Urbana, IL
Issue Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1016480
Patent Number(s):
7906320
Application Number:
US Patent Application 12/206,871
Assignee:
The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois (Urbana, IL)
Patent Classifications (CPCs):
Y - NEW / CROSS SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES Y10 - TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC Y10S - TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
C - CHEMISTRY C12 - BIOCHEMISTRY C12Q - MEASURING OR TESTING PROCESSES INVOLVING ENZYMES, NUCLEIC ACIDS OR MICROORGANISMS
DOE Contract Number:  
FG02-01ER63179
Resource Type:
Patent
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION

Citation Formats

Lu, Yi, and Liu, Juewen. Fluorescence based biosensor. United States: N. p., 2011. Web.
Lu, Yi, & Liu, Juewen. Fluorescence based biosensor. United States.
Lu, Yi, and Liu, Juewen. Tue . "Fluorescence based biosensor". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1016480.
@article{osti_1016480,
title = {Fluorescence based biosensor},
author = {Lu, Yi and Liu, Juewen},
abstractNote = {A novel biosensor comprises at least one fluorophore and at least two quenchers, and is capable of selectively and specifically detecting the presence of an ion in the presence of other ions.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {3}
}

Patent:

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Accelerated Color Change of Gold Nanoparticles Assembled by DNAzymes for Simple and Fast Colorimetric Pb 2+ Detection
journal, October 2004


Structure of the extracellular region of HER2 alone and in complex with the Herceptin Fab
journal, February 2003


In vivo selection of spectinomycin-binding RNAs
journal, December 2002


Selective Colorimetric Detection of Polynucleotides Based on the Distance-Dependent Optical Properties of Gold Nanoparticles
journal, August 1997


Membrane probe-spectral emission type detection system for mercury in water
journal, August 1971


Fluorescent Sensors Based on Aptamer Self-Assembly
journal, November 2000


Capping DNA with DNA
journal, March 2000


Improving Fluorescent DNAzyme Biosensors by Combining Inter- and Intramolecular Quenchers
journal, December 2003


Nucleic Acid AptamersFrom Selection in Vitro to Applications in Vivo
journal, September 2000


Peptidyl Fluorescent Chemosensors for the Detection of Divalent Copper
journal, April 2003


Synthesis of New Phenanthroline-Based Heteroditopic Ligands – Highly Efficient and Selective Fluorescence Sensors for Copper(II) Ions
journal, November 2006


Bioconjugated Nanoparticles for DNA Protection from Cleavage
journal, June 2003


Ratiometric Displacement Approach to Cu(II) Sensing by Fluorescence
journal, February 2005


Homocysteine-Mediated Reactivity and Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles
journal, January 2007


A General Strategy for Effector-mediated Control of RNA-cleaving Ribozymes and DNA Enzymes
journal, April 2002


MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Making Catalytic DNAs
journal, December 2000


Tat peptide-derivatized magnetic nanoparticles allow in vivo tracking and recovery of progenitor cells
journal, April 2000


Mercury toxicity in the pregnant woman, fetus, and newborn infant
journal, October 1976


Cofactor-Assisted Self-Cleavage in DNA Libraries with a 3′–5′-Phosphoramidate Bond
journal, July 1997


Stereospecific recognition of tryptophan agarose by in vitro selected RNA
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Dissociation of Long-Chain Duplex RNA Can Occur Via Strand Displacement in Vitro: Biological Implications
journal, November 1996


A “Turn-On” Fluorescent Sensor for the Selective Detection of Mercuric Ion in Aqueous Media
journal, November 2003


The chemical repertoire of natural ribozymes
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Interactions of uranium and thorium with arsenazo III in an aqueous medium
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Role of Nd 3+ and Pb 2+ on the RNA Cleavage Reaction by a Small Ribozyme
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Site-Specific Control of Distances between Gold Nanoparticles Using Phosphorothioate Anchors on DNA and a Short Bifunctional Molecular Fastener
journal, December 2007


Colorimetric Detection of Mercuric Ion (Hg2+) in Aqueous Media using DNA-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles
journal, May 2007


Surface Immobilization of Catalytic Beacons Based on Ratiometric Fluorescent DNAzyme Sensors:  A Systematic Study
journal, August 2007


Extraction of acetonitrile from aqueous mixtures. 2. Ternary liquid equilibriums
journal, July 1979


Cu 2+ -Induced Blue Shift of the Pyrene Excimer Emission:  A New Signal Transduction Mode of Pyrene Probes
journal, March 2001


Fluorescence Polarization for Monitoring Ribozyme Reactions in Real Time
journal, August 2000


Peptide Aptamers: Specific Inhibitors of Protein Function
journal, August 2004


RNA aptamers to the peptidyl transferase inhibitor chloramphenicol
journal, November 1997


An Effective Fluorescent Chemosensor for Mercury Ions
journal, July 2000


The hairpin ribozyme: structure, assembly and catalysis
journal, February 1998


DNAzyme amplification of molecular beacon signal
journal, September 2005


A DNA enzyme that cleaves RNA
journal, December 1994


Ion-Pair Extraction of Metalloporphyrins into Acetonitrile for Determination of Copper(II)
journal, January 1996


Lanthanide probes for a phosphodiester-cleaving, lead-dependent, DNAzyme
journal, January 1998


Turn-On and Ratiometric Mercury Sensing in Water with a Red-Emitting Probe
journal, May 2007


Characterization of a DNA-Cleaving deoxyribozyme
journal, October 2001


Adenine-Aptamer Complexes: A BIPARTITE RNA SITE THAT BINDS THE ADENINE NUCLEIC BASE
journal, November 2001


SURVEY AND SUMMARY: From DNA biosensors to gene chips
journal, August 2000


A Highly Sensitive and Selective Catalytic DNA Biosensor for Lead Ions
journal, October 2000


Discrete dipole approximation for calculating extinction and Raman intensities for small particles with arbitrary shapes
journal, July 1995


Hemin-Stimulated Docking of Cytochrome c to a Hemin−DNA Aptamer Complex
journal, April 2002


Structure-Switching Signaling Aptamers
journal, April 2003


Wavelength-shifting molecular beacons
journal, November 2000


Fluorescent detection of zinc in biological systems: recent development on the design of chemosensors and biosensors
journal, January 2004


Selection of single-stranded DNA molecules that bind and inhibit human thrombin
journal, February 1992


A review of molecular recognition technologies for detection of biological threat agents
journal, December 2000


A Luminescence-Based Mercury Biosensor
journal, February 1995


In vitro selection of RNA molecules that bind specific ligands
journal, August 1990


DNA aptamers block L-selectin function in vivo. Inhibition of human lymphocyte trafficking in SCID mice.
journal, December 1996


DNA Aptamers Selected against the HIV-1 RNase H Display in Vitro Antiviral Activity
journal, August 2001


H-DNA and Related Structures
journal, June 1994


A DNA aptamer which binds to and inhibits thrombin exhibits a new structural motif for DNA
journal, March 1993


Solvent extraction of lactic acid from aqueous solution
journal, January 1994


Folding DNA to create nanoscale shapes and patterns
journal, March 2006


Engineered allosteric ribozymes as biosensor components
journal, February 2002


Molecular-Level Control of Feature Separation in One-Dimensional Nanostructure Assemblies Formed by Biomolecular Nanolithography
journal, July 2004


An RNA motif that binds ATP
journal, August 1993


Stem-loop oligonucleotides: a robust tool for molecular biology and biotechnology
journal, June 2002


Depleted and Natural Uranium: Chemistry and Toxicological Effects
journal, July 2004


Arginine-Binding RNAs Resembling TAR Identified by in Vitro Selection
journal, January 1996


In Vitro Selection of Hg (II) and As (V)-Dependent RNA-Cleaving DNAzymes
journal, January 2007


Isolation of RNA Aptamers for Biological Cofactors by In Vitro Selection
journal, June 1994


Isolation of a fluorophore-specific DNA aptamer with weak redox activity
journal, November 1998


MRI Detection of Thrombin with Aptamer Functionalized Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
journal, February 2008


Highly Dispersible Molecular Sieve Carbon Nanoparticles
journal, November 2004


Gold Mining as a Source of Mercury Exposure in the Brazilian Amazon
journal, May 1998


Molecular Aptamer for Real-Time Oncoprotein Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Monitoring by Fluorescence Anisotropy
journal, December 2001


Proofreading and Error Removal in a Nanomaterial Assembly
journal, November 2005


The study of the gas—solid interaction of acetic acid with a cuprous oxide surface using reflection—absorption spectroscopy
journal, December 1974


Selected classes of minimised hammerhead ribozyme have very high cleavage rates at low Mg2+ concentration
journal, January 1999


In vitro selection of RNA lectins: using combinatorial chemistry to interpret ribozyme evolution
journal, May 1995


Room-Temperature Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism and Multiallele DNA Detection Using Fluorescent Nanocrystals and Microarrays
journal, September 2003


Investigation of Fatty Acid Monolayers on Metals by Contact Potential Measurements 1
journal, March 1965


Self-Cleaving Ribozymes of Hepatitis Delta Virus RNA
journal, August 1997


Colorimetric detection of DNA sequences based on electrostatic interactions with unmodified gold nanoparticles
journal, September 2004


A Bright and Specific Fluorescent Sensor for Mercury in Water, Cells, and Tissue
journal, September 2007


Environmental Copper: its Dynamics and Human Exposure Issues
journal, October 2001


Design and Evaluation of a Peptidyl Fluorescent Chemosensor for Divalent Zinc
journal, January 1996


DNA Aptamer Folding on Gold Nanoparticles:  From Colloid Chemistry to Biosensors
journal, March 2008


An Aptamer-Based Quartz Crystal Protein Biosensor
journal, September 2002


In vitro selection of molecular beacons
journal, October 2003


Selection and Characterization of an RNA Decoy for Transcription Factor NF-κB
journal, March 1999


Allosteric nucleic acid catalysts
journal, June 2000


In vitro selection, characterization, and application of deoxyribozymes that cleave RNA
journal, October 2005


New fluorescent and colorimetric DNAzyme biosensors for metal ions
journal, July 2003


A DNA-based method for rationally assembling nanoparticles into macroscopic materials
journal, August 1996


Reversible Switching of DNA-Gold Nanoparticle Aggregation
journal, December 2004


Structurally complex and highly active RNA ligases derived from random RNA sequences
journal, July 1995


Bioactive and nuclease-resistant L-DNA ligand of vasopressin
journal, October 1997


RNA catalysis
journal, December 1998


An Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor for Mercury Ions Based on a Porphyrin Dimer
journal, February 2002


A “Turn-On” Fluorescent Sensor for Selective Hg(II) Detection in Aqueous Media Based on Metal-Induced Dye Formation
journal, December 2006


MR molecular imaging of the Her-2/neu receptor in breast cancer cells using targeted iron oxide nanoparticles
journal, February 2003


Determination of lead in urine and whole blood by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
journal, August 1994


In vitro selection of self-cleaving DNAs
journal, December 1996


Selection and design of high-affinity rna ligands for hiv-1 rev
journal, December 1993


Molecular Aptamer Beacons for Real-Time Protein Recognition
journal, March 2002


Hexaphyrin(1.0.1.0.0.0). A new colorimetric actinide sensor
journal, November 2004


Photodynamic Fluorescent Metal Ion Sensors with Parts per Billion Sensitivity
journal, April 1998


Equilibria in the Systems of the Higher Alcohols, Water and Salts.
journal, December 1915


Label-Free Electronic Detection of Thrombin in Blood Serum by Using an Aptamer-Based Sensor
journal, August 2005


Crystal structure of a four-stranded intercalated DNA: d(C4)
journal, November 1994


Viral-Induced Self-Assembly of Magnetic Nanoparticles Allows the Detection of Viral Particles in Biological Media
journal, August 2003

  • Perez, J. Manuel; Simeone, F. Joseph; Saeki, Yoshinaga
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 125, Issue 34, p. 10192-10193
  • https://doi.org/10.1021/ja036409g

Sterically Stabilized Anti-HER2 Immunoliposomes:  Design and Targeting to Human Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro
journal, January 1997


Imaging of the intracellular topography of copper with a fluorescent sensor and by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microscopy
journal, August 2005


Direct detection of antibody-antigen binding using an on-chip artificial pore
journal, January 2003


Programmed Assembly of DNA Functionalized Quantum Dots
journal, September 1999


Synthesis from DNA of a molecule with the connectivity of a cube
journal, April 1991


Engineering precision RNA molecular switches
journal, March 1999


Gadolinium-DTPA as a contrast agent in MRI: initial clinical experience in 20 patients
journal, August 1984


Calcium-dependent oligonucleotide antagonists specific for L-selectin.
journal, June 1996


A Colorimetric Lead Biosensor Using DNAzyme-Directed Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles
journal, June 2003


DNA aptamers and DNA enzymes
journal, June 1997


Redox Switchable Fluorescent Probe Selective for Either Hg(II) or Cd(II) and Zn(II)
journal, June 1999


What Controls the Melting Properties of DNA-Linked Gold Nanoparticle Assemblies?
journal, February 2003


A specific quadrilateral synthesized from DNA branched junctions
journal, August 1989


In vitro selection of hematoporphyrin binding DNA aptamers
journal, December 2000


A catalytic beacon sensor for uranium with parts-per-trillion sensitivity and millionfold selectivity
journal, February 2007


In vitro selection for altered divalent metal specificity in the RNase P RNA
journal, December 1997


Emerging concepts in molecular MRI
journal, February 2007


A Selective and Sensitive Fluoroionophore for Hg II , Ag I , and Cu II with Virtually Decoupled Fluorophore and Receptor Units
journal, February 2000


Optical sensor for the visual detection of mercury using mesoporous silica anchoring porphyrin moiety
journal, January 2005


Uranyl Acetate Causes DNA Single Strand Breaks In Vitro in the Presence of Ascorbate (Vitamin C)
journal, April 2003


Targeting of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles to tumor cellsin Vivo by using transferrin receptor pathways
journal, August 1998


Unmodified gold nanoparticles as a colorimetric probe for potassium DNA aptamers
journal, January 2006


Smart single-chip gas sensor microsystem
journal, November 2001


MATERIALS SCIENCE: Nucleic Acid Nanotechnology
journal, December 2004


The risk of lead toxicity in homes with lead paint hazard
journal, February 1991


Determination of the orientation of aromatic molecules adsorbed on platinum electrodes: the influence of iodide, a surface-active anion
journal, May 1982


Catalytic Signal Amplification Using a Heck Reaction. An Example in the Fluorescence Sensing of Cu(II)
journal, November 2004


Adaptive Recognition by Nucleic Acid Aptamers
journal, February 2000


Preparation and Characterization of Au Colloid Monolayers
journal, February 1995


Detection of small organic analytes by fluorescing molecular switches
journal, October 2001


DNA in a material world
journal, January 2003


A Calcium-Sensitive Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent
journal, February 1999


A Highly Selective and Sensitive Fluorescent Chemosensor for Hg 2+ in Neutral Buffer Aqueous Solution
journal, March 2004


Phosphorylating DNA with DNA
journal, March 1999


Gold nanoparticlebased optical probes for target-responsive DNA structures
journal, March 2008


Directed Evolution of Nucleic Acid Enzymes
journal, June 2004


Therapeutic opportunities for targeted liposomal drug delivery
journal, September 1996


Optical fibre reflectance sensors for the detection of heavy metal ions based on immobilised Br-PADAP
journal, August 1998


The effects of iron oxides on proton relaxivity
journal, November 1988


Extraction of acetonitrile from aqueous solutions. 1. Ternary liquid equilibriums
journal, January 1978


An Autonomous DNA Nanomotor Powered by a DNA Enzyme
journal, July 2004


Pseudohexagonal 2D DNA Crystals from Double Crossover Cohesion
journal, August 2004


Alloy Formation of Gold−Silver Nanoparticles and the Dependence of the Plasmon Absorption on Their Composition
journal, May 1999


Tumor targeting using anti-her2 immunoliposomes
journal, July 2001


Immobilized RNA switches for the analysis of complex chemical and biological mixtures
journal, April 2001


Differential Gene Expression Patterns in HER2/neu-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer Cell Lines and Tissues
journal, October 2002


Engineering DNA aptamers and DNA enzymes with fluorescence-signaling properties
journal, January 2004


Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the camptothecin–polymer conjugate IT-101 in rats and tumor-bearing mice
journal, August 2005


Noninvasive Detection of Clinically Occult Lymph-Node Metastases in Prostate Cancer
journal, June 2003


DNA ligands that bind tightly and selectively to cellobiose
journal, May 1998


Aptamer-Based Colorimetric Probe for Cocaine
journal, August 2002


Fluorescent peptide sensor for the selective detection of Cu2+
journal, March 2007


Self-Assembled Monolayers of Thiol-End-Labeled DNA at Mercury Electrodes
journal, July 2006


A two-channel molecular dosimeter for the optical detection of copper( ii )
journal, January 2003


Synthesis of Linear, β-Cyclodextrin-Based Polymers and Their Camptothecin Conjugates
journal, September 2003


Sterically stabilized liposomes. Reduction in electrophoretic mobility but not electrostatic surface potential
journal, April 1992


Design and self-assembly of two-dimensional DNA crystals
journal, August 1998


Selection in vitro of single-stranded DNA molecules that fold into specific ligand-binding structures
journal, February 1992


Smart “Turn-on” Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agents Based on Aptamer-Functionalized Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
journal, September 2007


Self-splicing RNA: Autoexcision and autocyclization of the ribosomal RNA intervening sequence of tetrahymena
journal, November 1982


Oligonucleotide immobilization on micropatterned streptavidin surfaces
journal, April 2000


The influence of the blood levels of lead, aluminum and vanadium upon the arterial hypertension
journal, January 1995


Light-directed, spatially addressable parallel chemical synthesis
journal, February 1991


Mercury: major issues in environmental health.
journal, April 1993


Determination of Lead in Blood by Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry at a Carbon Disk Ultramicroelectrode
journal, July 1994


Two Decades of RNA Catalysis
journal, September 2002


A DNA metalloenzyme with DNA ligase activity
journal, June 1995


Peptide platforms for metal ion sensing
conference, December 1999


Combinatorial methods: aptamers and aptazymes
conference, December 1999


RNA-catalysed RNA polymerization using nucleoside triphosphates
journal, July 1996


A Reagentless Signal-On Architecture for Electronic, Aptamer-Based Sensors via Target-Induced Strand Displacement
journal, December 2005


A Selective, Ratiometric Fluorescent Sensor for Pb 2+
journal, January 2000


Defining a Smaller RNA Substrate for Elongation Factor Tu
journal, February 1995


The Chemical Form of Mercury in Fish
journal, August 2003


Review: Environmental exposure to mercury and its toxicopathologic implications for public health
journal, January 2003


Approaching The Limit: Can One DNA Oligonucleotide Assemble into Large Nanostructures?
journal, March 2006


Stripping voltammetric determination of trace levels of uranium by synergic adsorption
journal, January 1989


Assembly and characterization of five-arm and six-arm DNA branched junctions
journal, June 1991


A review of metal accumulation and toxicity in wild mammals
journal, June 1986


DNA Aptamers Selected Against the HIV-1 trans -Activation-responsive RNA Element Form RNA-DNA Kissing Complexes
journal, April 1999


Equilibria in Systems containing Alcohol, Salts and Water, including a New Method of Alcohol Analysis
journal, May 1913


Aptamers: An Emerging Class of Molecules That Rival Antibodies in Diagnostics
journal, September 1999


Rapid identification and characterization of hammerhead-ribozyme inhibitors using fluorescence-based technology
journal, January 2001


Sequence-Encoded Self-Assembly of Multiple-Nanocomponent Arrays by 2D DNA Scaffolding
journal, December 2005


Evidence for the metal-cofactor independence of an RNA phosphodiester-cleaving DNA enzyme
journal, August 1997


Dinucleotide Junction Cleavage Versatility of 8-17 Deoxyribozyme
journal, January 2004


Photoactive chemosensors 3 : a unique case of fluorescence enhancement with Cu( ii )
journal, January 2002


Capillary Optode: Determination of Mercury(II) in Aqueous Solution
journal, January 1999


Peptide bond formation by in vitro selected ribozymes
journal, November 1997


BIOCHEMISTRY: Biosensors-Sense and Sensitivity
journal, November 2000


DNA Triangles and Self-Assembled Hexagonal Tilings
journal, November 2004


Ribozyme-catalysed amino-acid transfer reactions
journal, May 1996


In Vitro Selection of Functional Nucleic Acids
journal, June 1999


Programmed Materials Synthesis with DNA
journal, July 1999


High-Throughput-Compatible Assay for glmS Riboswitch Metabolite Dependence
journal, February 2006


A Lead-Dependent DNAzyme with a Two-Step Mechanism
journal, June 2003


Activation of Sphingosine Kinase by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Inhibits Apoptosis in Human Endothelial Cells
journal, November 1999


Inhibition of receptor binding by high-affinity RNA ligands to vascular endothelial growth factor
journal, August 1994


DNA-Modified Core−Shell Ag/Au Nanoparticles
journal, August 2001


Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopic measurement of blood lead in matrix-matched standards
journal, September 1994


Antibody-based sensors for heavy metal ions
journal, December 2001


Aptamer-Based Folding Fluorescent Sensor for Cocaine
journal, May 2001


A two-metal ion mechanism operates in the hammerhead ribozyme-mediated cleavage of an RNA substrate
journal, January 1998


Structural diversity of self-cleaving ribozymes
journal, May 2000


Deoxyribozymes: New players in the ancient game of biocatalysis
journal, June 1999


Fluorescent Sensors for Zn 2+ Based on a Fluorescein Platform:  Synthesis, Properties and Intracellular Distribution
journal, August 2001


At the Crossroads of Chemistry, Biology, and Materials
journal, December 2003


Potent 2'-Amino-2'-deoxypyrimidine RNA Inhibitors of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor
journal, September 1995


Magnetic Sensors for Protease Assays
journal, March 2003


Highly Selective and Sensitive Phosphane Sulfide Derivative for the Detection of Hg 2+ in an Organoaqueous Medium
journal, March 2007


A Combinatorial Approach To Discover New Chelators for Optical Metal Ion Sensing
journal, November 2000


Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Murine Sphingosine Kinase
journal, September 1998


A New Fluorescent Chemosensor for Copper Ions Based on Tripeptide Glycyl−Histidyl−Lysine (GHK)
journal, October 2001


A novel RNA motif for neomycin recognition
journal, August 1995


Interference-based detection of nucleic acid targets on optically coated silicon
journal, January 2001


Programmable self-assembly of metal ions inside artificial DNA duplexes
journal, November 2006


In vitro selection of RNA aptamers specific for cyanocobalamin
journal, February 1994


Thrombin-binding DNA aptamer forms a unimolecular quadruplex structure in solution.
journal, April 1993


Expanding the scope of RNA catalysis
journal, June 1994


DNA aptamers that bind to chitin
journal, March 2000


Colorimetric Cu2+ detection with a ligation DNAzyme and nanoparticles
journal, January 2007


Mercury Detection in Seawater Using a Mercaptoacetic Acid Modified Gold Microwire Electrode
journal, May 2005


Determination of Picomolar Concentrations of Metal Ions Using Fluorescence Anisotropy:  Biosensing with a “Reagentless” Enzyme Transducer
journal, November 1998


A colorimetric sensor array for odour visualization
journal, August 2000


Label-Free Electrochemical Detection for Aptamer-Based Array Electrodes
journal, August 2005