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Title: Overview of the TCV tokamak program: Scientific progress and facility upgrades

Abstract

The TCV tokamak is augmenting its unique historical capabilities (strong shaping, strong electron heating) with ion heating, additional electron heating compatible with high densities, and variable divertor geometry, in a multifaceted upgrade program designed to broaden its operational range without sacrificing its fundamental flexibility. The TCV program is rooted in a three-pronged approach aimed at ITER support, explorations towards DEMO, and fundamental research. A 1 MW, tangential neutral beam injector (NBI) was recently installed and promptly extended the TCV parameter range, with record ion temperatures and toroidal rotation velocities and measurable neutral-beam current drive. ITER-relevant scenario development has received particular attention, with strategies aimed at maximizing performance through optimized discharge trajectories to avoid MHD instabilities, such as peeling-ballooning and neoclassical tearing modes. Experiments on exhaust physics have focused particularly on detachment, a necessary step to a DEMO reactor, in a comprehensive set of conventional and advanced divertor concepts. The specific theoretical prediction of an enhanced radiation region between the two X-points in the low-field-side snowflake-minus configuration was experimentally confirmed. Fundamental investigations of the power decay length in the scrape-off layer (SOL) are progressing rapidly, again in widely varying configurations and in both D and He plasmas; in particular, the doublemore » decay length in L-mode limited plasmas was found to be replaced by a single length at high SOL resistivity. Experiments on disruption mitigation by massive gas injection and electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) have begun in earnest, in parallel with studies of runaway electron generation and control, in both stable and disruptive conditions; a quiescent runaway beam carrying the entire electrical current appears to develop in some cases. Developments in plasma control have benefited from progress in individual controller design and have evolved steadily towards controller integration, mostly within an environment supervised by a tokamak profile control simulator. TCV has demonstrated effective wall conditioning with ECRH in He in support of the preparations for JT-60SA operation.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0012469
Research Org.:
Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES)
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY
OSTI Identifier:
1882416
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/S8FGO1

Citation Formats

Coda, S., Ahn, J., Albanese, R., Alberti, S., Alessi, E., Allan, S., Anand, H., Anastassiou, G., Andrèbe, Y., Angioni, C., Ariola, M., Bernert, M., Beurskens, M., Bin, W., Blanchard, P., Blanken, T. C., Boedo, J. A., Bolzonella, T., Bouquey, F., Braunmüller, F. H., Bufferand, H., Buratti, P., Calabró, G., Camenen, Y., Carnevale, D., Carpanese, F., Causa, F., Cesario, R., Chapman, I. T., Chellai, O., Choi, D., Cianfarani, C., Ciraolo, G., Citrin, J., Costea, S., Crisanti, F., Cruz, N., Czarnecka, A., Decker, J., De Masi, G., De Tommasi, G., Douai, D., Dunne, M., Duval, B. P., Eich, T., Elmore, S., Esposito, B., Faitsch, M., Fasoli, A., Fedorczak, N., Felici, F., Février, O., Ficker, O., Fietz, S., Fontana, M., Frassinetti, L., Furno, I., Galeani, S., Gallo, A., Galperti, C., Garavaglia, S., Garrido, I., Geiger, B., Giovannozzi, E., Gobbin, M., Goodman, T. P., Gorini, G., Gospodarczyk, M., Granucci, G., Graves, J. P., Guirlet, R., Hakola, A., Ham, C., Harrison, J., Hawke, J., Hennequin, P., Hnat, B., Hogeweij, D., Hogge, J.-Ph., Honoré, C., Hopf, C., Horáček, J., Huang, Z., Igochine, V., Innocente, P., Ionita Schrittwieser, C., Isliker, H., Jacquier, R., Jardin, A., Kamleitner, J., Karpushov, A., Keeling, D. L., Kirneva, N., Kong, M., Koubiti, M., Kovacic, J., Krämer-Flecken, A., Krawczyk, N., Kudlacek, O., Labit, B., Lazzaro, E., Le, H. B., Lipschultz, B., Llobet, X., Lomanowski, B., Loschiavo, V. P., Lunt, T., Maget, P., Maljaars, E., Malygin, A., Maraschek, M., Marini, C., Martin, P., Martin, Y., Mastrostefano, S., Maurizio, R., Mavridis, M., Mazon, D., McAdams, R., McDermott, R., Merle, A., Meyer, H., Militello, F., Miron, I. G., Molina Cabrera, P. A., Moret, J.-M., Moro, A., Moulton, D., Naulin, V., Nespoli, F., Nielsen, A. H., Nocente, M., Nouailletas, R., Nowak, S., Odstrčil, T., Papp, G., Papřok, R., Pau, A., Pautasso, G., Pericoli Ridolfini, V., Piovesan, P., Piron, C., Pisokas, T., Porte, L., Preynas, M., Ramogida, G., Rapson, C., Rasmussen, J. Juul, Reich, M., Reimerdes, H., Reux, C., Ricci, P., Rittich, D., Riva, F., Robinson, T., Saarelma, S., Saint-Laurent, F., Sauter, O., Scannell, R., Schlatter, Ch., Schneider, B., Schneider, P., Schrittwieser, R., Sciortino, F., Sertoli, M., Sheikh, U., Sieglin, B., Silva, M., Sinha, J., Sozzi, C., Spolaore, M., Stange, T., Stoltzfus-Dueck, T., Tamain, P., Teplukhina, A., Testa, D., Theiler, C., Thornton, A., Tophøj, L., Tran, M. Q., Tsironis, C., Tsui, C., Uccello, A., Vartanian, S., Verdoolaege, G., Verhaegh, K., Vermare, L., Vianello, N., Vijvers, W. A. J., Vlahos, L., Vu, N. M. T., Walkden, N., Wauters, T., Weisen, H., Wischmeier, M., Zestanakis, P., Zuin, M., and EUROfusion MST1 team. Overview of the TCV tokamak program: Scientific progress and facility upgrades. United States: N. p., 2021. Web. doi:10.7910/DVN/S8FGO1.
Coda, S., Ahn, J., Albanese, R., Alberti, S., Alessi, E., Allan, S., Anand, H., Anastassiou, G., Andrèbe, Y., Angioni, C., Ariola, M., Bernert, M., Beurskens, M., Bin, W., Blanchard, P., Blanken, T. C., Boedo, J. A., Bolzonella, T., Bouquey, F., Braunmüller, F. H., Bufferand, H., Buratti, P., Calabró, G., Camenen, Y., Carnevale, D., Carpanese, F., Causa, F., Cesario, R., Chapman, I. T., Chellai, O., Choi, D., Cianfarani, C., Ciraolo, G., Citrin, J., Costea, S., Crisanti, F., Cruz, N., Czarnecka, A., Decker, J., De Masi, G., De Tommasi, G., Douai, D., Dunne, M., Duval, B. P., Eich, T., Elmore, S., Esposito, B., Faitsch, M., Fasoli, A., Fedorczak, N., Felici, F., Février, O., Ficker, O., Fietz, S., Fontana, M., Frassinetti, L., Furno, I., Galeani, S., Gallo, A., Galperti, C., Garavaglia, S., Garrido, I., Geiger, B., Giovannozzi, E., Gobbin, M., Goodman, T. P., Gorini, G., Gospodarczyk, M., Granucci, G., Graves, J. P., Guirlet, R., Hakola, A., Ham, C., Harrison, J., Hawke, J., Hennequin, P., Hnat, B., Hogeweij, D., Hogge, J.-Ph., Honoré, C., Hopf, C., Horáček, J., Huang, Z., Igochine, V., Innocente, P., Ionita Schrittwieser, C., Isliker, H., Jacquier, R., Jardin, A., Kamleitner, J., Karpushov, A., Keeling, D. L., Kirneva, N., Kong, M., Koubiti, M., Kovacic, J., Krämer-Flecken, A., Krawczyk, N., Kudlacek, O., Labit, B., Lazzaro, E., Le, H. B., Lipschultz, B., Llobet, X., Lomanowski, B., Loschiavo, V. P., Lunt, T., Maget, P., Maljaars, E., Malygin, A., Maraschek, M., Marini, C., Martin, P., Martin, Y., Mastrostefano, S., Maurizio, R., Mavridis, M., Mazon, D., McAdams, R., McDermott, R., Merle, A., Meyer, H., Militello, F., Miron, I. G., Molina Cabrera, P. A., Moret, J.-M., Moro, A., Moulton, D., Naulin, V., Nespoli, F., Nielsen, A. H., Nocente, M., Nouailletas, R., Nowak, S., Odstrčil, T., Papp, G., Papřok, R., Pau, A., Pautasso, G., Pericoli Ridolfini, V., Piovesan, P., Piron, C., Pisokas, T., Porte, L., Preynas, M., Ramogida, G., Rapson, C., Rasmussen, J. Juul, Reich, M., Reimerdes, H., Reux, C., Ricci, P., Rittich, D., Riva, F., Robinson, T., Saarelma, S., Saint-Laurent, F., Sauter, O., Scannell, R., Schlatter, Ch., Schneider, B., Schneider, P., Schrittwieser, R., Sciortino, F., Sertoli, M., Sheikh, U., Sieglin, B., Silva, M., Sinha, J., Sozzi, C., Spolaore, M., Stange, T., Stoltzfus-Dueck, T., Tamain, P., Teplukhina, A., Testa, D., Theiler, C., Thornton, A., Tophøj, L., Tran, M. Q., Tsironis, C., Tsui, C., Uccello, A., Vartanian, S., Verdoolaege, G., Verhaegh, K., Vermare, L., Vianello, N., Vijvers, W. A. J., Vlahos, L., Vu, N. M. T., Walkden, N., Wauters, T., Weisen, H., Wischmeier, M., Zestanakis, P., Zuin, M., & EUROfusion MST1 team. Overview of the TCV tokamak program: Scientific progress and facility upgrades. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/S8FGO1
Coda, S., Ahn, J., Albanese, R., Alberti, S., Alessi, E., Allan, S., Anand, H., Anastassiou, G., Andrèbe, Y., Angioni, C., Ariola, M., Bernert, M., Beurskens, M., Bin, W., Blanchard, P., Blanken, T. C., Boedo, J. A., Bolzonella, T., Bouquey, F., Braunmüller, F. H., Bufferand, H., Buratti, P., Calabró, G., Camenen, Y., Carnevale, D., Carpanese, F., Causa, F., Cesario, R., Chapman, I. T., Chellai, O., Choi, D., Cianfarani, C., Ciraolo, G., Citrin, J., Costea, S., Crisanti, F., Cruz, N., Czarnecka, A., Decker, J., De Masi, G., De Tommasi, G., Douai, D., Dunne, M., Duval, B. P., Eich, T., Elmore, S., Esposito, B., Faitsch, M., Fasoli, A., Fedorczak, N., Felici, F., Février, O., Ficker, O., Fietz, S., Fontana, M., Frassinetti, L., Furno, I., Galeani, S., Gallo, A., Galperti, C., Garavaglia, S., Garrido, I., Geiger, B., Giovannozzi, E., Gobbin, M., Goodman, T. P., Gorini, G., Gospodarczyk, M., Granucci, G., Graves, J. P., Guirlet, R., Hakola, A., Ham, C., Harrison, J., Hawke, J., Hennequin, P., Hnat, B., Hogeweij, D., Hogge, J.-Ph., Honoré, C., Hopf, C., Horáček, J., Huang, Z., Igochine, V., Innocente, P., Ionita Schrittwieser, C., Isliker, H., Jacquier, R., Jardin, A., Kamleitner, J., Karpushov, A., Keeling, D. L., Kirneva, N., Kong, M., Koubiti, M., Kovacic, J., Krämer-Flecken, A., Krawczyk, N., Kudlacek, O., Labit, B., Lazzaro, E., Le, H. B., Lipschultz, B., Llobet, X., Lomanowski, B., Loschiavo, V. P., Lunt, T., Maget, P., Maljaars, E., Malygin, A., Maraschek, M., Marini, C., Martin, P., Martin, Y., Mastrostefano, S., Maurizio, R., Mavridis, M., Mazon, D., McAdams, R., McDermott, R., Merle, A., Meyer, H., Militello, F., Miron, I. G., Molina Cabrera, P. A., Moret, J.-M., Moro, A., Moulton, D., Naulin, V., Nespoli, F., Nielsen, A. H., Nocente, M., Nouailletas, R., Nowak, S., Odstrčil, T., Papp, G., Papřok, R., Pau, A., Pautasso, G., Pericoli Ridolfini, V., Piovesan, P., Piron, C., Pisokas, T., Porte, L., Preynas, M., Ramogida, G., Rapson, C., Rasmussen, J. Juul, Reich, M., Reimerdes, H., Reux, C., Ricci, P., Rittich, D., Riva, F., Robinson, T., Saarelma, S., Saint-Laurent, F., Sauter, O., Scannell, R., Schlatter, Ch., Schneider, B., Schneider, P., Schrittwieser, R., Sciortino, F., Sertoli, M., Sheikh, U., Sieglin, B., Silva, M., Sinha, J., Sozzi, C., Spolaore, M., Stange, T., Stoltzfus-Dueck, T., Tamain, P., Teplukhina, A., Testa, D., Theiler, C., Thornton, A., Tophøj, L., Tran, M. Q., Tsironis, C., Tsui, C., Uccello, A., Vartanian, S., Verdoolaege, G., Verhaegh, K., Vermare, L., Vianello, N., Vijvers, W. A. J., Vlahos, L., Vu, N. M. T., Walkden, N., Wauters, T., Weisen, H., Wischmeier, M., Zestanakis, P., Zuin, M., and EUROfusion MST1 team. 2021. "Overview of the TCV tokamak program: Scientific progress and facility upgrades". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/S8FGO1. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1882416. Pub date:Tue May 11 00:00:00 EDT 2021
@article{osti_1882416,
title = {Overview of the TCV tokamak program: Scientific progress and facility upgrades},
author = {Coda, S. and Ahn, J. and Albanese, R. and Alberti, S. and Alessi, E. and Allan, S. and Anand, H. and Anastassiou, G. and Andrèbe, Y. and Angioni, C. and Ariola, M. and Bernert, M. and Beurskens, M. and Bin, W. and Blanchard, P. and Blanken, T. C. and Boedo, J. A. and Bolzonella, T. and Bouquey, F. and Braunmüller, F. H. and Bufferand, H. and Buratti, P. and Calabró, G. and Camenen, Y. and Carnevale, D. and Carpanese, F. and Causa, F. and Cesario, R. and Chapman, I. T. and Chellai, O. and Choi, D. and Cianfarani, C. and Ciraolo, G. and Citrin, J. and Costea, S. and Crisanti, F. and Cruz, N. and Czarnecka, A. and Decker, J. and De Masi, G. and De Tommasi, G. and Douai, D. and Dunne, M. and Duval, B. P. and Eich, T. and Elmore, S. and Esposito, B. and Faitsch, M. and Fasoli, A. and Fedorczak, N. and Felici, F. and Février, O. and Ficker, O. and Fietz, S. and Fontana, M. and Frassinetti, L. and Furno, I. and Galeani, S. and Gallo, A. and Galperti, C. and Garavaglia, S. and Garrido, I. and Geiger, B. and Giovannozzi, E. and Gobbin, M. and Goodman, T. P. and Gorini, G. and Gospodarczyk, M. and Granucci, G. and Graves, J. P. and Guirlet, R. and Hakola, A. and Ham, C. and Harrison, J. and Hawke, J. and Hennequin, P. and Hnat, B. and Hogeweij, D. and Hogge, J.-Ph. and Honoré, C. and Hopf, C. and Horáček, J. and Huang, Z. and Igochine, V. and Innocente, P. and Ionita Schrittwieser, C. and Isliker, H. and Jacquier, R. and Jardin, A. and Kamleitner, J. and Karpushov, A. and Keeling, D. L. and Kirneva, N. and Kong, M. and Koubiti, M. and Kovacic, J. and Krämer-Flecken, A. and Krawczyk, N. and Kudlacek, O. and Labit, B. and Lazzaro, E. and Le, H. B. and Lipschultz, B. and Llobet, X. and Lomanowski, B. and Loschiavo, V. P. and Lunt, T. and Maget, P. and Maljaars, E. and Malygin, A. and Maraschek, M. and Marini, C. and Martin, P. and Martin, Y. and Mastrostefano, S. and Maurizio, R. and Mavridis, M. and Mazon, D. and McAdams, R. and McDermott, R. and Merle, A. and Meyer, H. and Militello, F. and Miron, I. G. and Molina Cabrera, P. A. and Moret, J.-M. and Moro, A. and Moulton, D. and Naulin, V. and Nespoli, F. and Nielsen, A. H. and Nocente, M. and Nouailletas, R. and Nowak, S. and Odstrčil, T. and Papp, G. and Papřok, R. and Pau, A. and Pautasso, G. and Pericoli Ridolfini, V. and Piovesan, P. and Piron, C. and Pisokas, T. and Porte, L. and Preynas, M. and Ramogida, G. and Rapson, C. and Rasmussen, J. Juul and Reich, M. and Reimerdes, H. and Reux, C. and Ricci, P. and Rittich, D. and Riva, F. and Robinson, T. and Saarelma, S. and Saint-Laurent, F. and Sauter, O. and Scannell, R. and Schlatter, Ch. and Schneider, B. and Schneider, P. and Schrittwieser, R. and Sciortino, F. and Sertoli, M. and Sheikh, U. and Sieglin, B. and Silva, M. and Sinha, J. and Sozzi, C. and Spolaore, M. and Stange, T. and Stoltzfus-Dueck, T. and Tamain, P. and Teplukhina, A. and Testa, D. and Theiler, C. and Thornton, A. and Tophøj, L. and Tran, M. Q. and Tsironis, C. and Tsui, C. and Uccello, A. and Vartanian, S. and Verdoolaege, G. and Verhaegh, K. and Vermare, L. and Vianello, N. and Vijvers, W. A. J. and Vlahos, L. and Vu, N. M. T. and Walkden, N. and Wauters, T. and Weisen, H. and Wischmeier, M. and Zestanakis, P. and Zuin, M. and EUROfusion MST1 team},
abstractNote = {The TCV tokamak is augmenting its unique historical capabilities (strong shaping, strong electron heating) with ion heating, additional electron heating compatible with high densities, and variable divertor geometry, in a multifaceted upgrade program designed to broaden its operational range without sacrificing its fundamental flexibility. The TCV program is rooted in a three-pronged approach aimed at ITER support, explorations towards DEMO, and fundamental research. A 1 MW, tangential neutral beam injector (NBI) was recently installed and promptly extended the TCV parameter range, with record ion temperatures and toroidal rotation velocities and measurable neutral-beam current drive. ITER-relevant scenario development has received particular attention, with strategies aimed at maximizing performance through optimized discharge trajectories to avoid MHD instabilities, such as peeling-ballooning and neoclassical tearing modes. Experiments on exhaust physics have focused particularly on detachment, a necessary step to a DEMO reactor, in a comprehensive set of conventional and advanced divertor concepts. The specific theoretical prediction of an enhanced radiation region between the two X-points in the low-field-side snowflake-minus configuration was experimentally confirmed. Fundamental investigations of the power decay length in the scrape-off layer (SOL) are progressing rapidly, again in widely varying configurations and in both D and He plasmas; in particular, the double decay length in L-mode limited plasmas was found to be replaced by a single length at high SOL resistivity. Experiments on disruption mitigation by massive gas injection and electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) have begun in earnest, in parallel with studies of runaway electron generation and control, in both stable and disruptive conditions; a quiescent runaway beam carrying the entire electrical current appears to develop in some cases. Developments in plasma control have benefited from progress in individual controller design and have evolved steadily towards controller integration, mostly within an environment supervised by a tokamak profile control simulator. TCV has demonstrated effective wall conditioning with ECRH in He in support of the preparations for JT-60SA operation.},
doi = {10.7910/DVN/S8FGO1},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2021},
month = {5}
}

Works referencing / citing this record:

Overview of the TCV tokamak program: scientific progress and facility upgrades
journal, June 2017