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Title: Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set

During Nauru99 it was noted that the island was producing small clouds that advected over the ARM site. The Nauru Island Effect Study was run for 1.5 years and the methodology developed to detect the occurrence. Nauru ACRF downwelling SW, wind direction, and air temperature data are used, along with downwelling SW data from Licor radiometers located on the southern end of the island near the airport landing strip. A statistical analysis and comparison of data from the two locations is used to detect the likely occurrence of an island influence on the Nauru ACRF site data
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DOE Contract Number:
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Research Org(s):
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (US)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER)
54 Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric moisture; Atmospheric pressure; Atmospheric temperature; Cloud fraction; Cloud optical depth; Horizontal wind; Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance; Longwave broadband upwelling irradiance; Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance; Shortwave broadband direct downwelling irradiance; Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance; Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance; Precipitation
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  1. ARM focuses on obtaining continuous measurements—supplemented by field campaigns—and providing data products that promote the advancement of climate models. ARM data include routine data products, value-added products (VAPs), field campaign data, complementary external data products from collaborating programs, and data contributed by ARM principal investigators for use by the scientific community. Data quality reports, graphical displays of data availability/quality, and data plots are also available from the ARM Data Center. Serving users worldwide, the ARM Data Center collects and archives approximately 20 terabytes of data per month. Datastreams are generally available for download within 48 hours.
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  1. Forcing data, suitable for use with single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs), have been derived from NWP analyses for the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites of Manus Island and Nauru.
  2. Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have been computed using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and AERI measurements. Raman lidar measurements of the rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen are used to derive vertical profiles of potential temperature. AERI measurements of downwelling radiancemore » are used in a physical retrieval approach (Smith et al. 1999, Feltz et al. 1998) to derive profiles of temperature and water vapor. The Raman lidar and AERI potential temperature profiles are merged to create a single potential temperature profile for computing PBL heights. PBL heights were derived from these merged potential temperature profiles using a modified Heffter (1980) technique that was tailored to the SGP site (Della Monache et al., 2004). PBL heights were computed on an hourly basis for the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011. These heights are provided as meters above ground level. « less
  3. From the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s, air samples were collected for the purposes of monitoring atmospheric CO2 from four sites in the AES air sampling network. Air samples were collected approximately once per week, between 12:00 and 16:00 local time, in a pair of evacuatedmore » 2-L thick-wall borosilicate glass flasks. Samples were collected under preferred conditions of wind speed and direction (i.e., upwind of the main station and when winds are strong and steady). The flasks were evacuated to pressures of ~1 × 10-4 mbar or 0.01 Pa prior to being sent to the stations. The airwas not dried during sample collection. The flask data from Alert show an increase in the annual atmospheric CO2 concentration from 341.35 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1981 to 357.21 ppmv in 1991. For Cape St. James, Trivett and Higuchi (1989) reported that the mean annual rate of increase, obtained from the slope of a least-squares regression line through the annual averages, was 1.43 ppmv per year. In August 1992, the weather station at Cape St. James was automated; as a result, the flask sampling program was discontinued at this site. Estevan Point, on the West Coast of Vancouver Island, was chosen as a replacement station. Sampling at Estevan Point started in 1992; thus, the monthly and annual CO2record from Estevan Point is too short to show any long-term trends. The sampling site at Sable Island, off the coast of Nova Scotia, was established in 1975. The flask data from Sable Island show an increase in the annual atmospheric CO2 concentration from 334.49 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1977 (the first full year of data) to 356.02 ppmv in 1990. For Sable Island, Trivett and Higuchi (1989) reported that the mean annual rate of increase, obtained from the slope of a least-squares regression line through the annual averages, was 1.48 ppmv per year. « less
  4. Surface synoptic weather reports from ships and land stations worldwide were processed to produce a global cloud climatology which includes: total cloud cover, the amount and frequency of occurrence of nine cloud types within three levels of the troposphere, the frequency of occurrence of clearmore » sky and of precipitation, the base heights of low clouds, and the non-overlapped amounts of middle and high clouds. Synoptic weather reports are made every three hours; the cloud information in a report is obtained visually by human observers. The reports used here cover the period 1971-96 for land and 1954-2008 for ocean. This digital archive provides multi-year monthly, seasonal, and annual averages in 5x5-degree grid boxes (or 10x10-degree boxes for some quantities over the ocean). Daytime and nighttime averages, as well as the diurnal average (average of day and night), are given. Nighttime averages were computed using only those reports that met an "illuminance criterion" (i.e., made under adequate moonlight or twilight), thus minimizing the "night-detection bias" and making possible the determination of diurnal cycles and nighttime trends for cloud types. The phase and amplitude of the first harmonic of both the diurnal cycle and the annual cycle are given for the various cloud types. Cloud averages for individual years are also given for the ocean for each of 4 seasons, and for each of the 12 months (daytime-only averages for the months). [Individual years for land are not gridded, but are given for individual stations in a companion data set, CDIAC's NDP-026D).] This analysis used 185 million reports from 5388 weather stations on continents and islands, and 50 million reports from ships; these reports passed a series of quality-control checks. This analysis updates (and in most ways supercedes) the previous cloud climatology constructed by the authors in the 1980s. Many of the long-term averages described here are mapped on the University of Washington, Department of Atmospheric Sciences Web site. The Online Cloud Atlas containing NDP-026E data is available via the University of Washington. « less
  5. The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures the downwelling infrared radiance from the Earth's atmosphere. The observations have broad spectral content and sufficient spectral resolution to discriminate among gaseous emitters (e.g., carbon dioxide and water vapor) and suspended matter (e.g.,more » aerosols, water droplets, and ice crystals). These upward-looking surface observations can be used to obtain vertical profiles of tropospheric temperature and water vapor, as well as measurements of trace gases (e.g., ozone, carbon monoxide, and methane) and downwelling infrared spectral signatures of clouds and aerosols.The AERI is a passive remote sounding instrument, employing a Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the spectral range 3.3-19.2 μm (520-3020 cm-1) at an unapodized resolution of 0.5 cm-1 (max optical path difference of 1 cm). The extended-range AERI (ER-AERI) deployed in dry climates, like in Alaska, have a spectral range of 3.3-25.0 μm (400-3020 cm-1) that allow measurements in the far-infrared region. Typically, the AERI averages views of the sky over a 16-second interval and operates continuously. « less