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Title: Shallow (2-meter) Temperature Surveys in Colorado

Shallow temperature surveys are useful in early-stage geothermal exploration to delineate surface outflow zones, with the intent to identify the source of upwelling, usually a fault. Detailed descriptions of the 2-meter survey method and equipment design can be found in Coolbaugh et al. (2007) and Sladek et al. (2007), and are summarized here. The survey method was devised to measure temperature as far below the zone of solar influence as possible, have minimal equilibration time, and yet be portable enough to fit on the back of an all-terrain vehicle (ATV); Figure 2). This method utilizes a direct push technology (DPT) technique where 2.3 m long, 0.54" outer diameter hollow steel rods are pounded into the ground using a demolition hammer. Resistance temperature devices (RTD) are then inserted into the rods at 2-meter depths, and allowed to equilibrate for one hour. The temperatures are then measured and recorded, the rods pulled out of the ground, and re-used at future sites. Usually multiple rods are planted over the course of an hour, and then the sampler returns back to the first station, measures the temperatures, pulls the rods, and so on, to eliminate waiting time. At Wagon Wheel Gap, 32 rods weremore » planted around the hot springs between June 20 and July 1, 2012. The purpose was to determine the direction of a possible upflow fault or other structure. Temperatures at 1.5m and 2m depths were measured and recorded in the attribute table of this point shapefile. Several anomalous temperatures suggest that outflow is coming from a ~N60W striking fault or shear zone that contains the quartz-fluorite-barite veins of the adjacent patented mining claims. It should be noted that temperatures at 2m depth vary according to the amount of solar heating from above, as well as possible geothermal heating from below. « less
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DOE Geothermal Data Repository; Flint Geothermal, LLC
Flint Geothermal, LLC
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USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Geothermal Technologies Program (EE-2C)
15 Geothermal Energy; geothermal; shallow temperature surveys; Colorado; Shallow temperature survey; ArcGIS; GIS; shapefile; shape file; geospatial
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  1. The Geothermal Data Repository (GDR) is the submission point for all data collected from researchers funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office (DOE GTO). The DOE GTO is providing access to its geothermal project information through the GDR. The GDR is powered by OpenEI, an energy information portal sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).
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  1. This shapefile contains location and attribute data for a shallow (2 meter) temperature survey conducted by Geothermal Technical Partners, Inc. during late 2008 and early 2009. Temperatures at 2m depth were measured at 192 separate points as outlined by Coolbaugh et al., 2007. The purposemore » of the survey was to try and detect a shallow thermal anomaly associated with the McGee Mountain geothermal area as discovered by Phillips Petroleum and Earth Power Resources in the late 1970’s. Drilling identified ~120oC temperatures at ~100m depth. This 2-meter survey delineated what was interpreted as a steam-heated fault zone centered along a range front fault in the vicinity of the drilled holes and fumaroles. Coolbaugh, M.F., Sladek, C., Faulds, J.E., Zehner, R.E., and Oppliger, G.L., 2007, Use of rapid temperature measurements at a 2-meter depth to augment deeper temperature gradient drilling: Proceedings, 32nd Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, Jan. 22-24, 2007, p. 109-116. Zehner, R., Tullar, K., and Rutledge, E., 2012, Effectiveness of 2-Meter and geoprobe shallow temperature surveys in early stage geothermal exploration: Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, v. 36, in press. « less
  2. This dataset contains a variety of data about the Fort Bliss geothermal area, part of the southern portion of the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. The dataset contains schematic models for the McGregor Geothermal System, a shallow temperature survey of the Fort Bliss geothermal area. Themore » dataset also contains Century OH logs, a full temperature profile, and complete logs from well RMI 56-5, including resistivity and porosity data, drill logs with drill rate, depth, lithology, mineralogy, fractures, temperature, pit total, gases, and descriptions among other measurements as well as CDL, CNL, DIL, GR Caliper and Temperature files. A shallow (2 meter depth) temperature survey of the Fort Bliss geothermal area with 63 data points is also included. Two cross sections through the Fort Bliss area, also included, show well position and depth. The surface map included shows faults and well spatial distribution. Inferred and observed fault distributions from gravity surveys around the Fort Bliss geothermal area. « less
  3. This is a GIS point feature shapefile representing wells, and their temperatures, that are located in the general Utah FORGE area near Milford, Utah. There are also fields that represent interpolated temperature values at depths of 200 m, 1000 m, 2000 m, 3000 m, andmore » 4000 m. in degrees Fahrenheit. The temperature values at specific depths as mentioned above were derived as follows. In cases where the well reached a given depth (200 m and 1, 2, 3, or 4 km), the temperature is the measured temperature. For the shallower wells (and at deeper depths in the wells reaching one or more of the target depths), temperatures were extrapolated from the temperature-depth profiles that appeared to have stable (re-equilibrated after drilling) and linear profiles within the conductive regime (i.e. below the water table or other convective influences such as shallow hydrothermal outflow from the Roosevelt Hydrothermal System). Measured temperatures/gradients from deeper wells (when available and reasonably close to a given well) were used to help constrain the extrapolation to greater depths. Most of the field names in the attribute table are intuitive, however HF = heat flow, intercept = the temperature at the surface (x-axis of the temperature-depth plots) based on the linear segment of the plot that was used to extrapolate the temperature profiles to greater depths, and depth_m is the total well depth. This information is also present in the shapefile metadata. « less
  4. x,y,z data of the 3D temperature model for the West Flank Coso FORGE site. Model grid spacing is 250m. The temperature model for the Coso geothermal field used over 100 geothermal production sized wells and intermediate-depth temperature holes. At the near surface of this model,more » two boundary temperatures were assumed: (1) areas with surface manifestations, including fumaroles along the northeast striking normal faults and northwest striking dextral faults with the hydrothermal field, a temperature of ~104ËšC was applied to datum at +1066 meters above sea level elevation, and (2) a near-surface temperature at about 10 meters depth, of 20ËšC was applied below the diurnal and annual conductive temperature perturbations. These assumptions were based on heat flow studies conducted at the CVF and for the Mojave Desert. On the edges of the hydrothermal system, a 73ËšC/km (4ËšF/100’) temperature gradient contour was established using conductive gradient data from shallow and intermediate-depth temperature holes. This contour was continued to all elevation datums between the 20ËšC surface and -1520 meters below mean sea level. Because the West Flank is outside of the geothermal field footprint, during Phase 1, the three wells inside the FORGE site were incorporated into the preexisting temperature model. To ensure a complete model was built based on all the available data sets, measured bottom-hole temperature gradients in certain wells were downward extrapolated to the next deepest elevation datum (or a maximum of about 25% of the well depth where conductive gradients are evident in the lower portions of the wells). After assuring that the margins of the geothermal field were going to be adequately modelled, the data was contoured using the Kriging method algorithm. Although the extrapolated temperatures and boundary conditions are not rigorous, the calculated temperatures are anticipated to be within ~6ËšC (20ËšF), or one contour interval, of the observed data within the Coso geothermal field. Based on a lack of temperature data west of 74-2TCH, the edges of this model still seem to have an effect on West Flank modeled temperatures. « less
  5. The Tuscarora geothermal system sits within a ~15 km wide left-step in a major west-dipping range-bounding normal fault system. The step over is defined by the Independence Mountains fault zone and the Bull Runs Mountains fault zone which overlap along strike. Strain is transferred betweenmore » these major fault segments via and array of northerly striking normal faults with offsets of 10s to 100s of meters and strike lengths of less than 5 km. These faults within the step over are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the range-bounding fault zones between which they reside. Faults within the broad step define an anticlinal accommodation zone wherein east-dipping faults mainly occupy western half of the accommodation zone and west-dipping faults lie in the eastern half of the accommodation zone. The 3D model of Tuscarora encompasses 70 small-offset normal faults that define the accommodation zone and a portion of the Independence Mountains fault zone, which dips beneath the geothermal field. The geothermal system resides in the axial part of the accommodation, straddling the two fault dip domains. The Tuscarora 3D geologic model consists of 10 stratigraphic units. Unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium has eroded down into bedrock units, the youngest and stratigraphically highest bedrock units are middle Miocene rhyolite and dacite flows regionally correlated with the Jarbidge Rhyolite and modeled with uniform cumulative thickness of ~350 m. Underlying these lava flows are Eocene volcanic rocks of the Big Cottonwood Canyon caldera. These units are modeled as intracaldera deposits, including domes, flows, and thick ash deposits that change in thickness and locally pinch out. The Paleozoic basement of consists metasedimenary and metavolcanic rocks, dominated by argillite, siltstone, limestone, quartzite, and metabasalt of the Schoonover and Snow Canyon Formations. Paleozoic formations are lumped in a single basement unit in the model. Fault blocks in the eastern portion of the model are tilted 5-30 degrees toward the Independence Mountains fault zone. Fault blocks in the western portion of the model are tilted toward steeply east-dipping normal faults. These opposing fault block dips define a shallow extensional anticline. Geothermal production is from 4 closely-spaced wells, that exploit a west-dipping, NNE-striking fault zone near the axial part of the accommodation zone. « less