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Title: ARM Carbon Cycle Gases Flasks at SGP Site

Data from flasks are sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ARM, Southern Great Plains Site and analyzed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA, Earth System Research Laboratory ESRL. The SGP site is included in the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. The surface samples are collected from a 60 m tower at the ARM SGP Central Facility, usually once per week in the afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. The samples are collected by the ARM and LBNL Carbon Project.
Publication Date:
DOE Contract Number:
Product Type:
Research Org(s):
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (US)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
54 Environmental Sciences; ARM; ccg-flask; SGP; AOS-CO2
OSTI Identifier:
  1. ARM focuses on obtaining continuous measurements—supplemented by field campaigns—and providing data products that promote the advancement of climate models. ARM data include routine data products, value-added products (VAPs), field campaign data, complementary external data products from collaborating programs, and data contributed by ARM principal investigators for use by the scientific community. Data quality reports, graphical displays of data availability/quality, and data plots are also available from the ARM Data Center. Serving users worldwide, the ARM Data Center collects and archives approximately 20 terabytes of data per month. Datastreams are generally available for download within 48 hours.
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  1. Data from ccg-flasks are sampled at the ARM SGP site and analyzed by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) as part of the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. Surface samples are collected from a 60m tower at the SGP Central Facility, usually oncemore » per week on one afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. Samples are collected by the ARM/LBNL Carbon Project. CO2 flask data contains measurements of CO2 concentration and CO2 stable isotope ratios (13CO2 and C18OO) from flasks collected at the SGP site. The flask samples are collected at 2m, 4m, 25m, and 60m along the 60m tower. « less
  2. Air samples were collected from five sites in the Main Geophysical Observatory air sampling network to monitor the atmospheric CO2 from 1983 - 1993. Airwas collected generally four times per month in pairs of 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks with one greaseless stainless steel stopcock.more » Sampling was performed by opening the stopcock of the flasks, which have been evacuated at the central laboratory at the Main Geophysical Observatory (MGO). The air was not dried during sample collection. Attempts were made to obtain samples when the wind speed was >5 m/s and the wind direction corresponded to the predetermined "clean air" sector. The period of record at Bering Island is too short to identify any long-term trends in atmospheric CO2 concentrations; however, the yearly mean atmospheric CO2 concentration at Bering Island rose from approximately 346 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1986 to 362.6 ppmv in 1993. Measurements from this station are considered indicative of maritime air masses. The period of record at Kotelny Island is too short to identify any long-term trends in atmospheric CO2 concentrations; however, the yearly mean atmospheric CO2 concentration at Kotelny Island rose from 356.08 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1988 to 358.8 ppmv in 1993. Because Kotelny Island is the northernmost Russian sampling site, measurements from this site serve as a useful comparison to other northern sites (e.g., Alert, Northwest Territories). In late 1989, air sampling began at the Russian site of Kyzylcha, located in the Republic of Uzbekistan. Unfortunately, the desert site at Kyzylcha has been out of operation since mid-1991 due to financial difficulties in Russia. The annual mean value of 359.02 parts per million by volume (ppmv) for 1990, the lone full year of operation, is higher than measurements from other monitoring programs at this latitude [e.g., Niwot Ridge (354.7 ppmv in 1990) and Tae-ahn Peninsula]. Station "C," an open ocean site, in the North Atlantic, east of Greenland, was established in 1968 and was operated in cooperation with NOAA's National Weather Service through 1973. The Main Geophysical Observatory collected flask samples at the site from January 1983 through October 1990. The yearly mean atmospheric CO concentration at Station "C" rose from 348.15 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1985 to 354.33 ppmv in 1989. The period of record at Teriberka Station is too short to identify any long-term trends in atmospheric CO2 concentrations; however, the yearly mean atmospheric CO2 concentration at Teriberka Station rose from 354.8 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1989 to 358.7 ppmv in 1993. « less
  3. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (NOAA/CMDL) has measured CO2 in air samples collected weekly at a global network of sites since the late 1960s. Atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios reported in these files were measured by a nondispersive infrared absorptionmore » technique in air samples collected in glass flasks. All CMDL flask samples are measured relative to standards traceable to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) CO2 mole fraction scale. These measurements constitute the most geographically extensive, carefully calibrated, internally consistent atmospheric CO2 data set available and are essential for studies aimed at better understanding the global carbon cycle budget. « less
  4. In the 1960s, thermonuclear bomb tests released significant pulses of radioactive 14C into the atmosphere. This major perturbation allowed scientists to study the dynamics of the global carbon cycle by measuring and observing rates of isotopic exchange. The Radiological Dating Laboratory at the Norwegian Institutemore » of Technology performed 14C measurements in atmospheric CO2 from 1962 to 1993 at a network of ground stations in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. These measurements were supplemented during 1965 with high-altitude (9-12.6 km) air samples collected using aircraft from the Norwegian Air Force. The resulting database, coupled with other 14C data sets, provides a greater understanding of the dynamic carbon reservoir and a crude picture of anomalous sources and sinks at different geographical latitudes. This database is outstanding for its inclusion of early 14C measurements, broad spatial coverage of sampling, consistency of sampling method, and 14C calculation results corrected for isotopic fractionation and radioactive decay. This database replaces previous versions published by the authors and the Radiological Dating Laboratory. Fourteen stations spanning latitudes from Spitsbergen (78° N) to Madagascar (21° S) were used for sampling during the lifetime of the Norwegian program. Some of the stations have data for only a brief period, while others have measurements through 1993. Sampling stations subject to local industrial CO2 contamination were avoided. The sites have sufficient separation to describe the latitudinal distribution of 14C in atmospheric models. The sampling procedure for all the surface (10-2400 m asl) 14C measurements in this database consisted of quantitative absorption of atmospheric CO2 in carbonate-free 0.5 N NaOH solution. The 14C measurements were made in a CO2 proportional counter and calculated (14C) as per mil excess above the normal 14C level defined by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Atmospheric 14C content is finally expressed as 14C, which is the relative deviation of the measured 14C activity from the NIST oxalic acid standard activity, after correction for isotopic fractionation and radioactive decay related to age. The data are organized by sampling station, and each record of the database contains the sampling dates; values for 14C excess (14C) relative to the NIST standard, fractionation 13C (13C) relative to the Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) standard, and corrected 14C ( 14C) excess; and the standard deviation for 14C. The 14C calculation results presented here are thus corrected for isotopic fractionation and radioactive decay, and constitute the final product of a research effort that has spanned three decades. The 14C station data show a sharp increase in tropospheric radiocarbon levels in the early 1960s and then a decline after the majority of nuclear tests came to an end on August 5, 1963 (Test Ban Treaty). The sharp peaks in tropospheric radiocarbon in the early 1960s are more pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere, reflecting the location of most atomic weapons tests. The measurements show large seasonal variations in the 14C level during the early 1960s mainly as a result of springtime transport of bomb 14C from the stratosphere. During the 1970s, the seasonal variations are smaller and due partly to seasonal variations in CO2 from fossil-fuel emissions. The rate of decrease of atmospheric radiocarbon provides a check on the exchange constants of the atmosphere and ocean. This report and all data it describes are available from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) without charge. The Nydal and Lövseth atmospheric 14C database comprises 21 data files totaling 0.2 megabytes in size. The following report describes the sampling methods and analysis. In addition, the report includes a complete discussion of CDIAC's data-processing efforts, the contents and format of the data files, and a reprint of a Nydal and Lövseth journal article. « less
  5. This data base presents atmospheric methane (CH4) mixing ratios from flask air samples collected over the period 1983-1993 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory's (NOAA/CMDL's) global cooperative air sampling network. Air samples were collected approximately once per week atmore » 44 fixed sites (37 of which were still active at the end of 1993). Samples were also collected at 5 degree latitude intervals along shipboard cruise tracks in the Pacific Ocean between North America and New Zealand (or Australia) and at 3 degree latitude intervals along cruise tracks in the South China Sea between Singapore and Hong Kong. The shipboard measurements were made approximately every 3 weeks per latitude zone by each of two ships in the Pacific Ocean and approximately once every week per latitude zone in the South China Sea. All samples were analyzed for CH4 at the NOAA/CMDL laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, and each aliquot was referenced to the NOAA/CMDL methane standard scale. In addition to providing the complete set of atmospheric CH4 measurements from flask air samples collected at the NOAA/CMDL network sites, this data base also includes files which list monthly mean mixing ratios derived from the individual flask air measurements. These monthly summary data are available for 35 of the fixed sites and 21 of the shipboard sampling sites. « less