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Title: Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES), g1-aircraft, sedlacek sp2

The primary objective of the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in 2010 was to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their optical and hygroscopic properties in central California, with a focus on the Sacramento urban plume.
Authors:
Publication Date:
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Product Type:
Dataset
Research Org(s):
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (US)
Collaborations:
PNL, BNL,ANL,ORNL
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
Subject:
54 Environmental Sciences; BCMass; BCNumconc
OSTI Identifier:
1046227
  1. ARM focuses on obtaining continuous measurements—supplemented by field campaigns—and providing data products that promote the advancement of climate models. ARM data include routine data products, value-added products (VAPs), field campaign data, complementary external data products from collaborating programs, and data contributed by ARM principal investigators for use by the scientific community. Data quality reports, graphical displays of data availability/quality, and data plots are also available from the ARM Data Center. Serving users worldwide, the ARM Data Center collects and archives approximately 20 terabytes of data per month. Datastreams are generally available for download within 48 hours.
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  1. This campaign was designed to provide a detailed set of observations with which to 1) perform radiative and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) closure studies, 2) evaluate a new retrieval algorithm for aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the presence of clouds using passive remote sensing 3)more » extend a previously developed technique to investigate aerosol indirect effects, and 4) evaluate the performance of a detailed regional-scale model and a more parameterized global-scale model in simulating particle activation and AOD associated with the aging of anthropogenic aerosols. To meet these science objectives, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and the Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) was deployed on Cape Cod, Massachusetts for a 12-month period starting in the summer of 2012 in order to quantify aerosol properties, radiation and cloud characteristics at a location subject to both clear- and cloudy- conditions, and clean- and polluted-conditions. These observations were supplemented by two aircraft intensive observation periods (IOPS), one in the summer and a second in the winter. Each IOP required two aircraft. « less
  2. This database contains the results of various projections of the relation between future CO2 concentrations and future industrial emissions. These projections were contributed by groups from a number of countries as part of the scientific assessment for the report, "Radiative Forcing of Climate Change" (1994),more » issued by Working Group 1 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. There were three types of calculations: (1) forward projections, calculating the atmospheric CO2 concentrations resulting from specified emissions scenarios; (2) inverse calculations, determining the emission rates that would be required to achieve stabilization of CO2 concentrations via specified pathways; (3) impulse response function calculations, required for determining Global Warming Potentials. The projections were extrapolations of global carbon cycle models from pre-industrial times (starting at 1765) to 2100 or 2200 A.D. There were two aspects to the exercise: (1) an assessment of the uncertainty due to uncertainties regarding the current carbon budget, and (2) an assessment of the uncertainties arising from differences between models. To separate these effects, a set of standard conditions was used to explore inter-model differences and then a series of sensitivity studies was used to explore the consequences of current uncertainties in the carbon cycle. « less
  3. The intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) study was launched under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization and with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy to document differences in results obtained with various radiation codes and radiation parameterizations in generalmore » circulation models (GCMs). ICRCCM produced benchmark, longwave, line-by-line (LBL) fluxes that may be compared against each other and against models of lower spectral resolution. During ICRCCM, infrared fluxes and cooling rates for several standard model atmospheres with varying concentrations of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone were calculated with LBL methods at resolutions of 0.01 cm-1 or higher. For comparison with other models, values were summed for the IR spectrum and given at intervals of 5 or 10 cm-1. This archive contains fluxes for ICRCCM-prescribed clear-sky cases. Radiative flux and cooling-rate profiles are given for specified atmospheric profiles for temperature, water vapor, and ozone-mixing ratios. The archive contains 328 files, including spectral summaries, formatted data files, and a variety of programs (i.e., C-shell scripts, FORTRAN codes, and IDL programs) to read, reformat, and display data. Collectively, these files require approximately 59 MB of disk space. « less
  4. Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities onmore » which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties. « less
  5. This campaign consisted of the deployment of the DOE ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) G-1 in a field campaign called ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX), which took place in conjunction with CalWater 2- a NOAA field campaign. Themore » joint CalWater 2/ACAPEX field campaign aimed to improve understanding and modeling of large-scale dynamics and cloud and precipitation processes associated with ARs and aerosol-cloud interactions that influence precipitation variability and extremes in the western U.S. The observational strategy consisted of the use of land and offshore assets to monitor: 1. the evolution and structure of ARs from near their regions of development 2. the long-range transport of aerosols in the eastern North Pacific and potential interactions with ARs 3. how aerosols from long-range transport and local sources influence cloud and precipitation in the U.S. West Coast where ARs make landfall and post-frontal clouds are frequent. « less