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Title: ARM: Surface Meteorology (SMET) station: 60-second meterological data

Surface Meteorology (SMET) station: 60-second meterological data
Authors:
Publication Date:
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Product Type:
Dataset
Research Org(s):
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (US)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER)
Subject:
54 Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric moisture; Atmospheric pressure; Atmospheric temperature; Horizontal wind; Precipitation
OSTI Identifier:
1025282
  1. ARM focuses on obtaining continuous measurements—supplemented by field campaigns—and providing data products that promote the advancement of climate models. ARM data include routine data products, value-added products (VAPs), field campaign data, complementary external data products from collaborating programs, and data contributed by ARM principal investigators for use by the scientific community. Data quality reports, graphical displays of data availability/quality, and data plots are also available from the ARM Data Center. Serving users worldwide, the ARM Data Center collects and archives approximately 20 terabytes of data per month. Datastreams are generally available for download within 48 hours.
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  1. The monitoring site at Garmisch-Partenkirchen is considered a grassland valley site. Because of strong local influence (vegetation and meteorology), the CO2 concentrations at Garmisch-Partenkirchen are higher and show greater seasonal amplitudes than the concentrations measured at Wank or Zugspitze. According to the filtered data, themore » annual atmospheric CO2 concentrations at Garmisch-Partenkirchen increased from 330.2 ppmv in 1978 to 345.1 ppmv in 1986 and from 347.6 ppmv in 1988 to 354.7 ppmv in 1992. The monitoring site at Wank Peak (WMO-BAPMoN station) is located on the grass-covered, rounded top of the mountain, just above the timberline. The mean annual CO2 concentrations at Wank Peak increased from 334.2 ppmv in 1980 to 348.6 ppmv in 1992. The station at Zugspitze is located near the summit of the highest mountain of the German Alps. In 1990, the site of CO2 sampling was changed from a location 250 m below the summit to a new monitoring station (2937 m above MSL) close to the mountain top. Compatibility of the results was seen from measurements conducted in parallel at the two sites for several months. Because of the high elevation of the mountain station, the CO2 measurements at Zugspitze can be considered free of regional contamination most of the time. The mean annual CO2 concentrations at Zugspitze increased from 333.7 ppmv in 1981 to 349.4 ppmv in 1992. « less
  2. A data base containing meteorological observations from the People's Republic of China (PRC) is described. These data were compiled in accordance with a joint research agreement signed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the PRC Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) on August 19, 1987.more » CAS's Institute of Atmospheric Physics (Beijing, PRC) has provided records from 296 stations, organized into five data sets: (1) a 60-station data set containing monthly measurements of barometric pressure, surface air temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity, sunshine duration, cloud amount, wind direction and speed, and number of days with snow cover; (2) a 205-station data set containing monthly mean temperatures and monthly precipitation totals; (3) a 40-station subset of the 205-station data set containing monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures and monthly extreme maximum and minimum temperatures; (4) a 180-station data set containing daily precipitation totals; and (5) a 147-station data set containing 10-day precipitation totals. Sixteen stations from these data sets (13 from the 60-station set and 3 from the 205-station set) have temperature and/or precipitation records that begin prior to 1900, whereas the remaining stations began observing in the early to mid-1900s. Records from most stations extend through 1988. (Note: Users interested in the TR055 60-station data set should acquire expanded and updated data from CDIAC's NDP-039, Two Long-Term Instrumental Climatic Data Bases of the People's Republic of China) « less
  3. This database contains monthly mean surface temperature and mean sea level pressure data from twenty-nine meteorological stations within the Antarctic region. The first version of this database was compiled at the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom. The databasemore » extended through 1988 and was made available in 1989 by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) as a Numeric Data Package (NDP), NDP-032. This update of the database includes data through early 1999 for most stations (through 2000 for a few), and also includes all available mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature data. For many stations this means that over 40 years of data are now available, enough for many of the trends associated with recent warming to be more thoroughly examined. Much of the original version of this dataset was obtained from the World Weather Records (WWR) volumes (1951-1970), Monthly Climatic Data for the World (since 1961), and several other sources. Updating the station surface data involved requesting data from countries who have weather stations on Antarctica. Of particular importance within this study are the additional data obtained from Australia, Britain and New Zealand. Recording Antarctic station data is particularly prone to errors. This is mostly due to climatic extremes, the nature of Antarctic science, and the variability of meteorological staff at Antarctic stations (high turnover and sometimes untrained meteorological staff). For this compilation, as many sources as possible were contacted in order to obtain as close to official `source' data as possible. Some error checking has been undertaken and hopefully the final result is as close to a definitive database as possible. This NDP consists of this html documentation file, an ASCII text version of this file, six temperature files (three original CRU files for monthly maximum, monthly minimum, and monthly mean temperature and three equivalent files slightly reformatted at CDIAC), two monthly mean pressure data files (one original CRU file and one slightly reformatted CDIAC version of the file), four graphics files that describe the station network and the nature of temperature and pressure trends, a file summarizing annual and mean-monthly trends in surface temperatures over Antarctica, a file summarizing monthly Antarctic surface temperature anomalies with respect to the period 1961-90, a station inventory file, and 3 FORTRAN and 3 SAS routines for reading the data that may be incorporated into analysis programs that users may devise. These 23 files have a total size of approximately 2 megabytes and are available via the Internet through CDIAC's Web site or anonymous FTP (File Transfer Protocol) server, and, upon request, various magnetic media. « less
  4. This NDP presents land-based monthly surface-air-temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951-1970 reference period mean) on a 5° latitude by 10° longitude global grid. Monthly surface-air-temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957-1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65°S to 85°S) are presented inmore » a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and from the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in producing regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. The present updated version of this data set is identical to the earlier version for all records from 1851-1978 except for the addition of the Antarctic surface-air-temperature anomalies beginning in 1957. Beginning with the 1979 data, this package differs from the earlier version in several ways. Erroneous data for some sites have been corrected after a review of the actual station temperature data, and inconsistencies in the representation of missing values have been removed. For some grid locations, data have been added from stations that had not contributed to the original set. Data from satellites have also been used to correct station records where large discrepancies were evident. The present package also extends the record by adding monthly surface-air-temperature anomalies for the Northern (grid points from 85°N to 0°) and Southern (grid points from 5°S to 60°S) Hemispheres for 1985-1990. In addition, this updated package presents the monthly-mean-temperature records for the individual stations that were used to produce the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. « less
  5. This database contains 6- and 3-hourly meteorological observations from a 223-station network of the former Soviet Union. These data have been made available through cooperation between the two principal climate data centers of the United States and Russia: the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), inmore » Asheville, North Carolina, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Centre (RIHMI-WDC) in Obninsk, Russia. The first version of this database extended through the mid-1980s (ending year dependent upon station) and was made available in 1995 by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) as NDP-048. A second version of the database extended the data records through 1990. This third, and current version of the database includes data through 2000 for over half of the stations (mainly for Russia), whereas the remainder of the stations have records extending through various years of the 1990s. Because of the break up of the Soviet Union in 1991, and since RIHMI-WDC is a Russian institution, only Russain stations are generally available through 2000. The non-Russian station records in this database typically extend through 1991. Station records consist of 6- and 3-hourly observations of some 24 meteorological variables including temperature, past and present weather type, precipitation amount, cloud amount and type, sea level pressure, relative humidity, and wind direction and speed. The 6-hourly observations extend from 1936 through 1965; the 3-hourly observations extend from 1966 through 2000 (or through the latest year available). These data have undergone extensive quality assurance checks by RIHMI-WDC, NCDC, and CDIAC. The database represents a wealth of meteorological information for a large and climatologically important portion of the earth's land area, and should prove extremely useful for a wide variety of regional climate change studies. « less