Celebrating 70 Years of Scientific and Technical Information
The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) grew out of the post-World War II initiative to make the scientific research of the Manhattan Project as freely available to the public as possible. Ever since it was established in 1947, OSTI has been committed to ensuring citizens have appropriate access to their government’s research results. OSTI is dedicated to the principle that, to advance science, research must be shared, and OSTI works to accelerate the sharing of knowledge to speed discovery. (For a quick tour of OSTI's past, present, and future, please see OSTI – A Young 70.)
To celebrate 70 years of advancing scientific knowledge, OSTI is featuring some of the leading scientists and works particularly relevant to the formation of DOE, OSTI, and their predecessor organizations and is highlighting Nobel Laureates and other important research figures in DOE’s history.
Leading Scientists in the DOE OSTI Collections
Remarkable advances in science and research innovations can be attributed to many researchers affiliated with DOE or its predecessor agencies over the years. These Nobel Laureates and renowned scientists made important contributions to addressing U.S. energy, environmental, and nuclear challenges. Some of DOE’s most prominent researchers are included in the list. Their accomplishments were key to the evolution of the Department of Energy, and OSTI’s collections include many of their publications.
Biographical information and publications related to each of these scientists is available at DOE R&D Accomplishments. A complete list of Nobel Laureates affiliated with DOE and its predecessor agencies can also be found at DOE R&D Accomplishments.
1934 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Discovery of heavy hydrogen
1938 Nobel Prize in Physics
Discovery of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for the discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons
1939 Nobel Prize in Physics
Invention of the cyclotron and discoveries obtained with it
1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements
1962 Enrico Fermi Award
Contributions to chemical and nuclear physics, leadership in research on thermonuclear reactions, and efforts to strengthen national security and to insure the peace
1963 Nobel Prize in Physics
Contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly involving fundamental symmetry principles
1964 Nobel Prize in Physics
Fundamental work in quantum electronics which led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle
1965 Nobel Prize in Physics
Fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles
1982 Nobel Prize in Physics
Use of the Renormalization Group in the theory of critical phenomena at phase transitions
1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Discovery of fullerenes, carbon molecules with polyhedral or tubular shapes
1997 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Clarifying the enzymatic synthesis mechanism of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the currency of chemical energy transfer in living cells
1998 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Developing computer methods to describe the motion of molecules in chemical reactions
2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Discovery and development of conductive polymers
2011 Nobel Prize in Physics
Discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe through observations of distant supernovae
The OSTI Catalogue of Collections
The scientific and technical information that OSTI makes available is produced and published in a variety of media and formats. OSTI offers STI in textual, multimedia, audiovisual, and other digital media, and its STI products include technical reports; scientific and technical conference papers and presentations; theses and dissertations; journal article manuscripts, citations, and articles; scientific and computer software; workshop reports; contractor planning documents; patents; and publicly available scientific research datasets.
The OSTI Catalogue of Collections includes SciTech Connect, the primary repository for DOE science, technology, and engineering research information from the 1940s to today. OSTI also developed and hosts DOE Data Explorer, which offers scientific research data resulting from DOE-funded research; ScienceCinema, scientific videos featuring leading-edge research from DOE; DOepatents, patents resulting from DOE-sponsored research; and DOE R&D Accomplishments, remarkable outcomes in science resulting from past DOE research and development. Since August 2014, through the DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy and Science or DOE PAGES, OSTI has also been collecting, archiving, and making publicly available the “gold standard” of scientific communication – peer-reviewed journal articles or final accepted manuscripts resulting from DOE-funded research.