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Title: Dose calculations using MARS for Bremsstrahlung beam stops and collimators in APS beamline stations.

Abstract

The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MARS is used to model the generation of gas bremsstrahlung (GB) radiation from 7-GeV electrons which scatter from residual gas atoms in undulator straight sections within the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Additionally, MARS is employed to model the interactions of the GB radiation with components along the x-ray beamlines and then determine the expected radiation dose-rates that result. In this manner, MARS can be used to assess the adequacy of existing shielding or the specifications for new shielding when required. The GB radiation generated in the 'thin-target' of an ID straight section will consist only of photons in a 1/E-distribution up to the full energy of the stored electron beam. Using this analytical model, the predicted GB power for a typical APS 15.38-m insertion device (ID) straight section is 4.59 x 10{sup -7} W/nTorr/mA, assuming a background gas composed of air (Z{sub eff} = 7.31) at room temperature (293K). The total GB power provides a useful benchmark for comparisons between analytical and numerical approaches. We find good agreement between MARS and analytical estimates for total GB power. The extended straight section 'target' creates a radial profile of GB, which is highly peakedmore » centered on the electron beam. The GB distribution reflects the size of the electron beam that creates the radiation. Optimizing the performance of MARS in terms of CPU time per incident trajectory requires the use of a relatively short, high-density gas target (air); in this report, the target density is {rho}L = 2.89 x 10{sup -2} g/cm{sup 2} over a length of 24 cm. MARS results are compared with the contact dose levels reported in TB-20, which used EGS4 for radiation transport simulations. Maximum dose-rates in 1 cc of tissue phantom form the initial basis for comparison. MARS and EGS4 results are approximately the same for maximum 1-cc dose-rates and attenuation in the photon-dominated regions; for thicker targets, however, the dose-rate no longer depends only on photon attenuation, as photoneutrons (PNs) begin to dominate. The GB radiation-induced photoneutron measurements from four different metals (Fe, Cu, W, and Pb) are compared with MARS predictions. The simulated dose-rates for beamline 6-ID are approximately 3-5 times larger than the measured values, whereas those for beamline 11-ID are much closer. Given the uncertainty in local values of pressure and Z, the degree of agreement between MARS and the PN measurements is good. MARS simulations of GB-induced radiation in and around the FOE show the importance of using actual pressure and gas composition (Z{sub eff}) to obtain accurate PN dose. For a beam current of 300 mA, extrapolating pressure data measured in previously published studies predicts an average background gas pressure of 27 nTorr. An average atomic number of Z{sub eff} = 4.0 is obtained from the same studies. In addition, models of copper masks presently in use at the APS are included. Simulations show that inclusion of exit masks make significant differences in both the radiation spatial distribution within the FOE, as well as the peak intensity. Two studies have been conducted with MARS to assess shielding requirements. First, dose levels in contact with the outside wall of the FOE are examined when GB radiation strikes Pb or W beam stops of varying transverse size within the FOE. Four separate phantom regions are utilized to measure the dose, two at beam elevation and two at the horizontal beam position. The first two phantoms are used for scoring FOE dose along the outside and back walls, horizontally; the second two collect dose on the roof and vertically on the back wall. In all cases, the beam stop depth is maintained at 30 cm. Inclusion of front end (FE) exit masks typically cause a 1-2 order-of-magnitude increase in the dose-rates relative to the case with no masks. Masks place secondary bremsstrahlung sources inside the FOE, and therefore they must be shielded appropriately. The MARS model does not fully account for all shielding present in the hutches; localized shielding is employed in individual hutches. Typically, a collimator, placed downstream of the FE exit masks, mitigates the possible increase in dose. Regarding beam stop transverse size, a modest reduction in dose on the back wall is noted as the stop dimension (square cross section) is increased from 12 cm to 24 cm. In the second study, the thickness of Pb required to shield against the GB extremal ray is determined. In this study, we are interested in finding the thickness of material necessary to add at the edge of a stop to adequately block GB radiation; therefore, we look at the case of no masks in order to have a well-defined GB beam edge. Simulations show the separation between the extremal ray and the edge of the shielding should be 2R{sub m}, where R{sub m} is the Moliere radius.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
993700
Report Number(s):
ANL/APS/TB-54
TRN: US1008147
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE; ATOMIC NUMBER; BEAM CURRENTS; BEAM POSITION; BREMSSTRAHLUNG; COLLIMATORS; CROSS SECTIONS; DISTRIBUTION; DOSE RATES; ELECTRON BEAMS; RADIATION TRANSPORT; SHIELDING; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; STORAGE RINGS; WIGGLER MAGNETS

Citation Formats

Dooling, J, and Accelerator Systems Division. Dose calculations using MARS for Bremsstrahlung beam stops and collimators in APS beamline stations.. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.2172/993700.
Dooling, J, & Accelerator Systems Division. Dose calculations using MARS for Bremsstrahlung beam stops and collimators in APS beamline stations.. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/993700
Dooling, J, and Accelerator Systems Division. Mon . "Dose calculations using MARS for Bremsstrahlung beam stops and collimators in APS beamline stations.". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/993700. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/993700.
@article{osti_993700,
title = {Dose calculations using MARS for Bremsstrahlung beam stops and collimators in APS beamline stations.},
author = {Dooling, J and Accelerator Systems Division},
abstractNote = {The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MARS is used to model the generation of gas bremsstrahlung (GB) radiation from 7-GeV electrons which scatter from residual gas atoms in undulator straight sections within the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Additionally, MARS is employed to model the interactions of the GB radiation with components along the x-ray beamlines and then determine the expected radiation dose-rates that result. In this manner, MARS can be used to assess the adequacy of existing shielding or the specifications for new shielding when required. The GB radiation generated in the 'thin-target' of an ID straight section will consist only of photons in a 1/E-distribution up to the full energy of the stored electron beam. Using this analytical model, the predicted GB power for a typical APS 15.38-m insertion device (ID) straight section is 4.59 x 10{sup -7} W/nTorr/mA, assuming a background gas composed of air (Z{sub eff} = 7.31) at room temperature (293K). The total GB power provides a useful benchmark for comparisons between analytical and numerical approaches. We find good agreement between MARS and analytical estimates for total GB power. The extended straight section 'target' creates a radial profile of GB, which is highly peaked centered on the electron beam. The GB distribution reflects the size of the electron beam that creates the radiation. Optimizing the performance of MARS in terms of CPU time per incident trajectory requires the use of a relatively short, high-density gas target (air); in this report, the target density is {rho}L = 2.89 x 10{sup -2} g/cm{sup 2} over a length of 24 cm. MARS results are compared with the contact dose levels reported in TB-20, which used EGS4 for radiation transport simulations. Maximum dose-rates in 1 cc of tissue phantom form the initial basis for comparison. MARS and EGS4 results are approximately the same for maximum 1-cc dose-rates and attenuation in the photon-dominated regions; for thicker targets, however, the dose-rate no longer depends only on photon attenuation, as photoneutrons (PNs) begin to dominate. The GB radiation-induced photoneutron measurements from four different metals (Fe, Cu, W, and Pb) are compared with MARS predictions. The simulated dose-rates for beamline 6-ID are approximately 3-5 times larger than the measured values, whereas those for beamline 11-ID are much closer. Given the uncertainty in local values of pressure and Z, the degree of agreement between MARS and the PN measurements is good. MARS simulations of GB-induced radiation in and around the FOE show the importance of using actual pressure and gas composition (Z{sub eff}) to obtain accurate PN dose. For a beam current of 300 mA, extrapolating pressure data measured in previously published studies predicts an average background gas pressure of 27 nTorr. An average atomic number of Z{sub eff} = 4.0 is obtained from the same studies. In addition, models of copper masks presently in use at the APS are included. Simulations show that inclusion of exit masks make significant differences in both the radiation spatial distribution within the FOE, as well as the peak intensity. Two studies have been conducted with MARS to assess shielding requirements. First, dose levels in contact with the outside wall of the FOE are examined when GB radiation strikes Pb or W beam stops of varying transverse size within the FOE. Four separate phantom regions are utilized to measure the dose, two at beam elevation and two at the horizontal beam position. The first two phantoms are used for scoring FOE dose along the outside and back walls, horizontally; the second two collect dose on the roof and vertically on the back wall. In all cases, the beam stop depth is maintained at 30 cm. Inclusion of front end (FE) exit masks typically cause a 1-2 order-of-magnitude increase in the dose-rates relative to the case with no masks. Masks place secondary bremsstrahlung sources inside the FOE, and therefore they must be shielded appropriately. The MARS model does not fully account for all shielding present in the hutches; localized shielding is employed in individual hutches. Typically, a collimator, placed downstream of the FE exit masks, mitigates the possible increase in dose. Regarding beam stop transverse size, a modest reduction in dose on the back wall is noted as the stop dimension (square cross section) is increased from 12 cm to 24 cm. In the second study, the thickness of Pb required to shield against the GB extremal ray is determined. In this study, we are interested in finding the thickness of material necessary to add at the edge of a stop to adequately block GB radiation; therefore, we look at the case of no masks in order to have a well-defined GB beam edge. Simulations show the separation between the extremal ray and the edge of the shielding should be 2R{sub m}, where R{sub m} is the Moliere radius.},
doi = {10.2172/993700},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/993700}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2010},
month = {11}
}