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Title: Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage

Abstract

i-ion batteries based on commercially available LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode were investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The full cell that operated at flat 1.85V demonstrated stable cycling for 200 cycles followed by a rapid fade. A significant improvement in cycling stability was achieved via Ketjen black coating of the cathode. A Li-ion full cell with Ketjen black modified LiFePO4 cathode and an unmodified Li4Ti5O12 anode exhibited negligible fade after more than 1200 cycles with a capacity of ~130mAh/g. The improved stability, along with its cost-effectiveness, environmentally benignity and safety, make the LiFePO4/ Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery a promising option of storing renewable energy.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
992354
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-74420
VT1201000
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 44A(1 Supplement):21-25
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Li-ion; LiFePo4 cathode; Li5Ti4O12 anode; energy storage

Citation Formats

Wang, Wei, Choi, Daiwon, and Yang, Zhenguo. Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1007/s11661-012-1284-4.
Wang, Wei, Choi, Daiwon, & Yang, Zhenguo. Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage. United States. doi:10.1007/s11661-012-1284-4.
Wang, Wei, Choi, Daiwon, and Yang, Zhenguo. 2013. "Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage". United States. doi:10.1007/s11661-012-1284-4.
@article{osti_992354,
title = {Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage},
author = {Wang, Wei and Choi, Daiwon and Yang, Zhenguo},
abstractNote = {i-ion batteries based on commercially available LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode were investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The full cell that operated at flat 1.85V demonstrated stable cycling for 200 cycles followed by a rapid fade. A significant improvement in cycling stability was achieved via Ketjen black coating of the cathode. A Li-ion full cell with Ketjen black modified LiFePO4 cathode and an unmodified Li4Ti5O12 anode exhibited negligible fade after more than 1200 cycles with a capacity of ~130mAh/g. The improved stability, along with its cost-effectiveness, environmentally benignity and safety, make the LiFePO4/ Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery a promising option of storing renewable energy.},
doi = {10.1007/s11661-012-1284-4},
journal = {Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 44A(1 Supplement):21-25},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2013,
month = 1
}
  • Li-ion batteries based on LiFePO4 cathode and anatase TiO2/graphene anode were investigated for possible stationary energy storage application. Fine-structured LiFePO4 was synthesized by novel molten surfactant approach. Anatase TiO2/graphene nanocomposite was prepared via self assembly method. The full cell that operated at flat 1.6V demonstrated negligible fade after more than 700 cycles. The LiFePO4/TiO2 combination Li-ion battery is inexpensive, environmentally benign, safe and stable. Therefore, it can be practically applied as stationary energy storage for renewable power sources.
  • Two-dimensional Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanosheets are prepared via a surfactant assisted hydrothermal process. Polyether (P123) was added as the surfactant to modify the surface and control the microstructure of the hydrothermal products and thus affect the electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized LTO anode material. XRD results show that the addition of P123 can restrain the growth of Li2TiO3 during the hydrothermal process, thus affecting the morphology and enhancing the rate performance of the final products. With the addition of P123, the growth of LTO can be restrained and ultrathin LTO nanosheets can be obtained after high temperature sintering, which is beneficialmore » for the charge transfer and Li+ ion diffusion. The rate performance of these two different LTO materials is very different because of their differences in phase composition and fine morphology. The P123-assisted nanostructured LTO sample (P-LTO) shows a much higher rate capability than the LTO sample without P123, with over 130 mAh g-1 capacity retained at the charge-discharge rate of 64C when used in a lithium battery. For intercalation of larger size Na+ ions, the P-LTO still exhibit a capacity of 115 mAh g-1 at a charge (de-sodiation process) rate of 10C and maintains 96% capacity after 400 cycles« less
  • Li-ion mobility in LiFePO{sub 4}, a key property for energy applications, is impeded by Fe antisite defects (Fe{sub Li}) that form in select b-axis channels. Here we combine first-principles calculations, statistical mechanics, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to identify the origin of the effect: Li vacancies (V{sub Li}) are confined in one-dimensional b-axis channels, shuttling between neighboring Fe{sub Li}. Segregation in select channels results in shorter Fe{sub Li}-Fe{sub Li} spans, whereby the energy is lowered by the V{sub Li}'s spending more time bound to end-point Fe{sub Li}'s. V{sub Li}-Fe{sub Li}-V{sub Li} complexes also form, accounting for observed electron energy lossmore » spectroscopy features.« less
  • A novel solvothermal approach combined with high-temperature calcinations was developed to synthesize on a large scale LiFePO{sub 4} microspheres consisting of nanoplates or nanoparticles with an open three-dimensional (3D) porous microstructure. These micro/nanostructured LiFePO{sub 4}A microspheres have a high tap density and, as electrodes, show excellent rate capability and cycle stability.
  • The electrochemical performances of nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 materials are described in this communication. The nanomaterials were synthesized by pyrolysis of an aerosol precursor. Both compositions required moderate heat-treatment to become electrochemically active. LiFePO4 nanoparticles were coated with a uniform, 2-4 nm thick carbon-coating using an organic precursor in the heat treatment step and showed high tap density of 1.24 g/cm3, in spite of 50-100 nm particle size and 2.9 wtpercent carbon content. Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles were between 50-200 nm in size and showed tap density of 0.8 g/cm3. The nanomaterials were tested both in half cell configurations against Li-metal andmore » also in LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells. Nano-LiFePO4 showed high discharge rate capability with values of 150 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 charges. Nano-Li4Ti5O12 also showed high charge capability with values of 148 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 discharges; the discharge (lithiation) capability was comparatively slower. LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells deliver charge/discharge capacity values of 150 and 122 mAh/g at C/5 and 5C, respectively.« less