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Title: Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine

Abstract

The goal of the project was to demonstrate that low pressure loop EGR incorporating a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) can be applied to an off-highway engine to meet Tier 3 (Task I) and Interim Tier 4 (Task II) off-road emissions standards. Task I data was collected using a John Deere 8.1 liter engine modified with a low pressure loop EGR system. The engine and EGR system was optimized and final data over the ISO 8178 eight mode test indicated the NOx emissions were less than 4 g/kWh and the PM was less than 0.02 g/kWh which means the engine met the Tier 3 off-road standard. Considerable experimental data was collected and used by Michigan Tech University to develop and calibrate the MTU-Filter 1D DPF model. The MTU-Filter 1D DPF code predicts the particulate mass evolution (deposition and oxidation) in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) during simultaneous loading and during thermal and NO{sub 2}-assisted regeneration conditions. It also predicts the pressure drop across the DPF, the flow and temperature fields, the solid filtration efficiency and the particle number distribution downstream of the DPF. A DOC model was also used to predict the NO{sub 2} upstreammore » of the DPF. The DPF model was calibrated to the experimental data at temperatures from 230 C to 550 C, and volumetric flow rates from 9 to 39 actual m{sup 3}/min. Model predictions of the solid particulate mass deposited in the DPF after each loading and regeneration case were in agreement within +/-10g (or +/-10%) of experimental measurements at the majority of the engine operating conditions. The activation temperatures obtained from the model calibration are in good agreement with values reported in the literature and gave good results in the model calibration by using constant pre-exponential factors throughout the entire range of conditions evaluated. The average clean filter permeability was 2.372 x 10{sup -13} m{sup 2}. Estimates of the solid particulate mass packing density inside the porous wall were 1 to 5 kg/m{sup 3}; and percolation factors were 0.81 to 0.97. Average particulate layer permeability was 1.95 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}. Solid particulate layer packing density values were between 11 and 128 kg/m{sup 3}. These values were in good agreement with the Peclet number correlation theory reported in the literature. NO{sub 2}-assisted oxidation of PM in the DPF showed experimentally that a significant reduction of the pressure drop can be achieved (<8 kPa) when sufficient NO{sub 2} (>120 ppm) is available and high exhaust gas temperatures ({approx}360-460 C) can be maintained, even at high PM loadings (low NO{sub 2}/solid PM ratios). The CRT{trademark} (DOC-DPF system) showed limited advantages when used with high PM rates (low NOx/PM ratios) in combination with a low pressure loop EGR strategy for a continuous operation of an engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. The 8.1-liter engine was not designed for low-pressure loop EGR and when the EGR was added the NOx emissions were reduced but the PM emissions increased. This corresponds to the well known NOx to PM relationship in which if the NOx is reduced the PM emissions increase. In order for this technology to be successful on this engine family, the engine out PM emissions must be reduced. These results led to Task II. Task II objective was to meet the interim Tier 4 standards using the CCRT{trademark} technology applied to an advanced 6.8 liter John Deere engine. The advanced engine incorporated a 4 valve head, required additional EGR, an advanced high pressure common rail fuel system and a better matched turbocharger. The EGR system was optimized and the goal of less than 2 g/kWh NOx and less than 0.02 g/kWh PM were achieved over the 8 mode test. Again, experimental data was provided to Michigan Tech to study the passive regeneration of the CCRT{trademark} technology. Two computer models, i.e., the MTU 1-D DOC model and the MTU 1-D 2-layer CPF model were developed as part of this research and calibrated using the data obtained from experiments. The 1-D DOC model employs a three-way catalytic reaction scheme for CO, HC and NO oxidation, and is used to predict CO, HC, NO and NO{sub 2} concentrations downstream of the DOC. The 1-D 2-layer CPF model used '2-filters in series' approach for filtration, PM deposition and oxidation in the PM cake and substrate wall via thermal (O{sub 2}) and NO{sub 2}/temperature-assisted mechanisms, and production of NO{sub 2} as the exhaust gas mixture passes through the CPF catalyst washcoat. The bottom line is the MTU models were improved and the models better predict the pressure drop across the DOC and CPF and the models do a good job estimating the amount of PM entering the CPF and the amount oxidized in the CPF and the amount exiting. The idea is to use this information to predict how much soot is in the DPF and predict when active regeneration is needed.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
John Deere Construction Equipment Company
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
992140
DOE Contract Number:  
FC26-02AL67526
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; OFF-HIGHWAY USE; VEHICLES; DIESEL ENGINES; CATALYSTS; EXHAUST GASES; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; EXHAUST RECIRCULATION SYSTEMS; NITROGEN OXIDES; PARTICULATES; CARBON MONOXIDE; HYDROCARBONS; PERFORMANCE; MATHEMATICAL MODELS

Citation Formats

Baumgard, Kirby, Triana, Antonio, Johnson, John, Yang, Song, and Premchand, Kiran. Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.2172/992140.
Baumgard, Kirby, Triana, Antonio, Johnson, John, Yang, Song, & Premchand, Kiran. Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine. United States. doi:10.2172/992140.
Baumgard, Kirby, Triana, Antonio, Johnson, John, Yang, Song, and Premchand, Kiran. Mon . "Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine". United States. doi:10.2172/992140. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/992140.
@article{osti_992140,
title = {Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine},
author = {Baumgard, Kirby and Triana, Antonio and Johnson, John and Yang, Song and Premchand, Kiran},
abstractNote = {The goal of the project was to demonstrate that low pressure loop EGR incorporating a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) can be applied to an off-highway engine to meet Tier 3 (Task I) and Interim Tier 4 (Task II) off-road emissions standards. Task I data was collected using a John Deere 8.1 liter engine modified with a low pressure loop EGR system. The engine and EGR system was optimized and final data over the ISO 8178 eight mode test indicated the NOx emissions were less than 4 g/kWh and the PM was less than 0.02 g/kWh which means the engine met the Tier 3 off-road standard. Considerable experimental data was collected and used by Michigan Tech University to develop and calibrate the MTU-Filter 1D DPF model. The MTU-Filter 1D DPF code predicts the particulate mass evolution (deposition and oxidation) in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) during simultaneous loading and during thermal and NO{sub 2}-assisted regeneration conditions. It also predicts the pressure drop across the DPF, the flow and temperature fields, the solid filtration efficiency and the particle number distribution downstream of the DPF. A DOC model was also used to predict the NO{sub 2} upstream of the DPF. The DPF model was calibrated to the experimental data at temperatures from 230 C to 550 C, and volumetric flow rates from 9 to 39 actual m{sup 3}/min. Model predictions of the solid particulate mass deposited in the DPF after each loading and regeneration case were in agreement within +/-10g (or +/-10%) of experimental measurements at the majority of the engine operating conditions. The activation temperatures obtained from the model calibration are in good agreement with values reported in the literature and gave good results in the model calibration by using constant pre-exponential factors throughout the entire range of conditions evaluated. The average clean filter permeability was 2.372 x 10{sup -13} m{sup 2}. Estimates of the solid particulate mass packing density inside the porous wall were 1 to 5 kg/m{sup 3}; and percolation factors were 0.81 to 0.97. Average particulate layer permeability was 1.95 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}. Solid particulate layer packing density values were between 11 and 128 kg/m{sup 3}. These values were in good agreement with the Peclet number correlation theory reported in the literature. NO{sub 2}-assisted oxidation of PM in the DPF showed experimentally that a significant reduction of the pressure drop can be achieved (<8 kPa) when sufficient NO{sub 2} (>120 ppm) is available and high exhaust gas temperatures ({approx}360-460 C) can be maintained, even at high PM loadings (low NO{sub 2}/solid PM ratios). The CRT{trademark} (DOC-DPF system) showed limited advantages when used with high PM rates (low NOx/PM ratios) in combination with a low pressure loop EGR strategy for a continuous operation of an engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. The 8.1-liter engine was not designed for low-pressure loop EGR and when the EGR was added the NOx emissions were reduced but the PM emissions increased. This corresponds to the well known NOx to PM relationship in which if the NOx is reduced the PM emissions increase. In order for this technology to be successful on this engine family, the engine out PM emissions must be reduced. These results led to Task II. Task II objective was to meet the interim Tier 4 standards using the CCRT{trademark} technology applied to an advanced 6.8 liter John Deere engine. The advanced engine incorporated a 4 valve head, required additional EGR, an advanced high pressure common rail fuel system and a better matched turbocharger. The EGR system was optimized and the goal of less than 2 g/kWh NOx and less than 0.02 g/kWh PM were achieved over the 8 mode test. Again, experimental data was provided to Michigan Tech to study the passive regeneration of the CCRT{trademark} technology. Two computer models, i.e., the MTU 1-D DOC model and the MTU 1-D 2-layer CPF model were developed as part of this research and calibrated using the data obtained from experiments. The 1-D DOC model employs a three-way catalytic reaction scheme for CO, HC and NO oxidation, and is used to predict CO, HC, NO and NO{sub 2} concentrations downstream of the DOC. The 1-D 2-layer CPF model used '2-filters in series' approach for filtration, PM deposition and oxidation in the PM cake and substrate wall via thermal (O{sub 2}) and NO{sub 2}/temperature-assisted mechanisms, and production of NO{sub 2} as the exhaust gas mixture passes through the CPF catalyst washcoat. The bottom line is the MTU models were improved and the models better predict the pressure drop across the DOC and CPF and the models do a good job estimating the amount of PM entering the CPF and the amount oxidized in the CPF and the amount exiting. The idea is to use this information to predict how much soot is in the DPF and predict when active regeneration is needed.},
doi = {10.2172/992140},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2006},
month = {1}
}