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Title: An Engineering Evaluation of Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin

Abstract

A small column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removal of cesium from caustic, supernatant, and dissolved salt solutions stored or generated from high-level tank wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site and Savannah River Sites. In both instances, deployment of SCIX systems, either in-tank or near-tank, is a means of expediting waste pretreatment and dispositioning with minimal or no new infrastructure requirements. Conceptually, the treatment approach can utilize a range of ion exchange media. Previously, both crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, nonelutable sorbent, and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), an organic, elutable resin, have been considered for cesium removal from tank waste. More recently, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated use of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644, an elutable ion exchange medium, for the subject application. Results of testing indicate hydraulic limitations of the SuperLig{reg_sign} resin, specifically a high pressure drop through packed ion exchange columns. This limitation is likely the result of swelling and shrinkage of the irregularly shaped (granular) resin during repeated conversions between sodium and hydrogen forms as the resin is first loaded then eluted. It is anticipated that a similar flow limitation would exist in columns packed with conventional, granular RF resin. However, use of sphericalmore » RF resin is a likely means of mitigating processing limitations due to excessive pressure drop. Although size changes occur as the spherical resin is cycled through loading and elution operations, the geometry of the resin is expected to effectively mitigate the close packing that leads to high pressure drops across ion exchange columns. Multiple evaluations have been performed to determine the feasibility of using spherical RF resin and to obtain data necessary for design of an SCIX process. The work performed consisted of examination of radiation effects on resin performance, quantification of cesium adsorption performance as a function of operating temperature and pH, and evaluation of sodium uptake (titration) as function of pH and counteranion concentration. The results of these efforts are presented in this report. Hydraulic performance of the resin and the use of eluant alternatives to nitric acid have also been evaluated and have been reported elsewhere (Taylor 2009, Taylor and Johnson 2009).« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
EM USDOE - Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)
OSTI Identifier:
989721
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2010/200
EY4049110; TRN: US201020%%208
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
08 HYDROGEN; ADSORPTION; CESIUM; EVALUATION; FORMALDEHYDE; GEOMETRY; HYDRAULICS; HYDROGEN; ION EXCHANGE; NITRIC ACID; PRESSURE DROP; RADIATION EFFECTS; REMOVAL; RESINS; RESORCINOL; SODIUM; TANKS; TESTING; TITRATION; WASTES

Citation Formats

Birdwell, Jr, Joseph F, Lee, Denise L, Taylor, Paul Allen, Collins, Robert T, and Hunt, Rodney Dale. An Engineering Evaluation of Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.2172/989721.
Birdwell, Jr, Joseph F, Lee, Denise L, Taylor, Paul Allen, Collins, Robert T, & Hunt, Rodney Dale. An Engineering Evaluation of Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin. United States. doi:10.2172/989721.
Birdwell, Jr, Joseph F, Lee, Denise L, Taylor, Paul Allen, Collins, Robert T, and Hunt, Rodney Dale. Wed . "An Engineering Evaluation of Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin". United States. doi:10.2172/989721. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/989721.
@article{osti_989721,
title = {An Engineering Evaluation of Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin},
author = {Birdwell, Jr, Joseph F and Lee, Denise L and Taylor, Paul Allen and Collins, Robert T and Hunt, Rodney Dale},
abstractNote = {A small column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removal of cesium from caustic, supernatant, and dissolved salt solutions stored or generated from high-level tank wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site and Savannah River Sites. In both instances, deployment of SCIX systems, either in-tank or near-tank, is a means of expediting waste pretreatment and dispositioning with minimal or no new infrastructure requirements. Conceptually, the treatment approach can utilize a range of ion exchange media. Previously, both crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, nonelutable sorbent, and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), an organic, elutable resin, have been considered for cesium removal from tank waste. More recently, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated use of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644, an elutable ion exchange medium, for the subject application. Results of testing indicate hydraulic limitations of the SuperLig{reg_sign} resin, specifically a high pressure drop through packed ion exchange columns. This limitation is likely the result of swelling and shrinkage of the irregularly shaped (granular) resin during repeated conversions between sodium and hydrogen forms as the resin is first loaded then eluted. It is anticipated that a similar flow limitation would exist in columns packed with conventional, granular RF resin. However, use of spherical RF resin is a likely means of mitigating processing limitations due to excessive pressure drop. Although size changes occur as the spherical resin is cycled through loading and elution operations, the geometry of the resin is expected to effectively mitigate the close packing that leads to high pressure drops across ion exchange columns. Multiple evaluations have been performed to determine the feasibility of using spherical RF resin and to obtain data necessary for design of an SCIX process. The work performed consisted of examination of radiation effects on resin performance, quantification of cesium adsorption performance as a function of operating temperature and pH, and evaluation of sodium uptake (titration) as function of pH and counteranion concentration. The results of these efforts are presented in this report. Hydraulic performance of the resin and the use of eluant alternatives to nitric acid have also been evaluated and have been reported elsewhere (Taylor 2009, Taylor and Johnson 2009).},
doi = {10.2172/989721},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2010},
month = {9}
}

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