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Title: Astrochemistry: Discovery of Novel Forms of Matter in Large Planets

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United States

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Nir Goldman. Astrochemistry: Discovery of Novel Forms of Matter in Large Planets. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Nir Goldman. Astrochemistry: Discovery of Novel Forms of Matter in Large Planets. United States.
Nir Goldman. Wed . "Astrochemistry: Discovery of Novel Forms of Matter in Large Planets". United States. doi:.
title = {Astrochemistry: Discovery of Novel Forms of Matter in Large Planets},
author = {Nir Goldman},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 08 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Wed Mar 08 00:00:00 EST 2006}
  • In an experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists precisely measured the temperature and structure of aluminum as it transitions into a superhot, highly compressed concoction known as “warm dense matter.”
  • As we celebrate the completion of the Standard Model with the discovery of a Higgs-like boson, some of us are working hard on what may be the next great discovery of particle physics. The problem of missing mass, which is now known as dark matter, has persisted for nearly a century. In this time, astrophysical evidence in favor of dark matter has only grown stronger. We now know that dark matter constitutes a majority of the matter in the Universe, yet it is not composed of any particle in the Standard Model. Dark matter is necessary for the formation ofmore » galaxies and galaxy clusters and hence has shaped the Universe as we know it. Despite this body of knowledge, we still don't know what particles compose dark matter or how they interact with the particles of the Standard Model. The answers to these remaining questions are being pursued on all frontiers of discovery. In this talk, I will provide an overview of the suite of experiments that is colloquially known as "direct detection" experiments. I will describe how these experiments aim to solve the dark matter puzzle, highlight some of the most promising efforts and conclude with a discussion on future prospects.« less
  • NASA has made the search for life, both inside and beyond our solar system, a focus of its space science program. The goal of the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) is to search for earth-like planets. Recently completed architecture studies suggest that both infrared and visible light techniques offer plausible solutions to the daunting observational problems this goal presents. I will summarize NASA's program, the results of recent studies, and the prospects for international collaboration on TPF.
  • There are a number of crises that a potentially habitable planet must avoid or surmount if its potential is to be realized. These include the runaway greenhouse, loss of atmosphere by chemical or physical processes, and long-lasting global glaciation. In this lecture I will present research on the climate dynamics governing such processes, with particular emphasis on the lessons to be learned from the cases of Early Mars and the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth.
  • It is only in the last decade that we have direct evidence for planets orbiting nearby Sun-like stars. If such planets happen to pass in front of their stars, we are presented with a golden opportunity to learn about the nature of these objects. Measurements of the dimming of starlight and gravitational wobble allow us to derive the planetary radius and mass, and, by inference, its composition. Recently, we used the Hubble Telescope to detect and study the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet for the first time. I will describe what we have learned about these planets