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Title: Smart materials for Gossamer spacecraft : performance limitations.

Abstract

Smart polymeric materials, such as piezoelectric polymers which deform by application of an electric field, are of interest for use in controllable mirrors as large, lightweight space optics. An important consideration when using any organic material in a space application is their extreme vulnerability to the space environment. In LEO the presence of atomic oxygen, large thermal extremes, hard vacuum, short wavelength ultraviolet and particulate radiation can result in erosion, cracking and outgassing of most polymers. While much research has been performed examining the physical and chemical changes incurred by polymers exposed to actual and simulated LEO environments, little work has focused on the effects of the space environment on the performance of piezoelectric polymers. The most widely used piezoelectric polymers are those based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and include copolymers synthesized from vinylidene fluoride and trifluoroethylene, hexafluoropropylene or chlorotrifluoroethylene. The presence of a comonomer group can greatly influence on the crystalline phase, melting point, Curie point, modulus and processing required for piezoelectricity. After a rigorous pre-selection process only two polymers, namely the PVDF homopolymer and a TrFE copolymer (80% comonomer content), satisfied most of the requirements for operation in the temperature/radiation environment of LEO. Based on this initial materialsmore » selection, we have now performed a detailed study of the effects of temperature, atomic oxygen and vacuum UV radiation simulating low Earth orbit conditions on these two polymers. Both polymers exhibited diminished but very stable piezoelectric performance up to 130 C despite the upper use temperatures suggested by industry of 80 C (PVDF) and 100 C (P(VDF-TrFE)). We believe that the loss of piezoelectric response in samples conditioned at 130 C compared with non-exposed samples is partly due to the depoling process which occurs when the highly stressed films undergo contraction via relaxation. The TrFE copolymer, which does not need to be stretched for the polar phase to be present, has better retention of piezoelectric properties at 130 C compared with the highly oriented homopolymer. AO/VUV exposure caused significant surface erosion and pattern development for both polymers. Erosion yields were 2.8 x 10{sup -24} cm{sup 3}/atom for PVDF and 2.5 x 10{sup -24} cm{sup 3}/atom for P(VDF-TrFE). The piezoelectric properties of the residual material for both polymers were largely unchanged after exposure, although a slight shift in the Curie transition of the P(VDF-TrFE) was observed. A lightly crosslinked network was formed in the copolymer, presumably due to penetrating VUV radiation, while the homopolymer remained uncrosslinked. These differences were attributed to different levels of crystallinity and increased VUV absorption by P(VDF-TrFE) over PVDF. In this paper a summary of the performance limiting effects of temperature, radiation, atomic oxygen and VUV on the piezoelectric response of PVDF based polymers will be presented.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Laboratories
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
987097
Report Number(s):
SAND2005-2139C
TRN: US201018%%217
DOE Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Proposed for 46th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHD/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics & Materials Conference held April 18-21, 2005 in Austin, TX.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ABSORPTION; CONTRACTION; COPOLYMERS; CURIE POINT; DEGASSING; ELECTRIC FIELDS; FLUORIDES; MELTING POINTS; MIRRORS; OPTICS; OXYGEN; PARTICULATES; PIEZOELECTRICITY; POLYMERS; RADIATIONS; RELAXATION; RETENTION; VULNERABILITY; WAVELENGTHS

Citation Formats

Dargaville, Tim Richard, Assink, Roger Alan, Celina, Mathias C., and Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail. Smart materials for Gossamer spacecraft : performance limitations.. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.2514/6.2005-2364.
Dargaville, Tim Richard, Assink, Roger Alan, Celina, Mathias C., & Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail. Smart materials for Gossamer spacecraft : performance limitations.. United States. https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2005-2364
Dargaville, Tim Richard, Assink, Roger Alan, Celina, Mathias C., and Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail. Fri . "Smart materials for Gossamer spacecraft : performance limitations.". United States. https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2005-2364.
@article{osti_987097,
title = {Smart materials for Gossamer spacecraft : performance limitations.},
author = {Dargaville, Tim Richard and Assink, Roger Alan and Celina, Mathias C. and Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail},
abstractNote = {Smart polymeric materials, such as piezoelectric polymers which deform by application of an electric field, are of interest for use in controllable mirrors as large, lightweight space optics. An important consideration when using any organic material in a space application is their extreme vulnerability to the space environment. In LEO the presence of atomic oxygen, large thermal extremes, hard vacuum, short wavelength ultraviolet and particulate radiation can result in erosion, cracking and outgassing of most polymers. While much research has been performed examining the physical and chemical changes incurred by polymers exposed to actual and simulated LEO environments, little work has focused on the effects of the space environment on the performance of piezoelectric polymers. The most widely used piezoelectric polymers are those based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and include copolymers synthesized from vinylidene fluoride and trifluoroethylene, hexafluoropropylene or chlorotrifluoroethylene. The presence of a comonomer group can greatly influence on the crystalline phase, melting point, Curie point, modulus and processing required for piezoelectricity. After a rigorous pre-selection process only two polymers, namely the PVDF homopolymer and a TrFE copolymer (80% comonomer content), satisfied most of the requirements for operation in the temperature/radiation environment of LEO. Based on this initial materials selection, we have now performed a detailed study of the effects of temperature, atomic oxygen and vacuum UV radiation simulating low Earth orbit conditions on these two polymers. Both polymers exhibited diminished but very stable piezoelectric performance up to 130 C despite the upper use temperatures suggested by industry of 80 C (PVDF) and 100 C (P(VDF-TrFE)). We believe that the loss of piezoelectric response in samples conditioned at 130 C compared with non-exposed samples is partly due to the depoling process which occurs when the highly stressed films undergo contraction via relaxation. The TrFE copolymer, which does not need to be stretched for the polar phase to be present, has better retention of piezoelectric properties at 130 C compared with the highly oriented homopolymer. AO/VUV exposure caused significant surface erosion and pattern development for both polymers. Erosion yields were 2.8 x 10{sup -24} cm{sup 3}/atom for PVDF and 2.5 x 10{sup -24} cm{sup 3}/atom for P(VDF-TrFE). The piezoelectric properties of the residual material for both polymers were largely unchanged after exposure, although a slight shift in the Curie transition of the P(VDF-TrFE) was observed. A lightly crosslinked network was formed in the copolymer, presumably due to penetrating VUV radiation, while the homopolymer remained uncrosslinked. These differences were attributed to different levels of crystallinity and increased VUV absorption by P(VDF-TrFE) over PVDF. In this paper a summary of the performance limiting effects of temperature, radiation, atomic oxygen and VUV on the piezoelectric response of PVDF based polymers will be presented.},
doi = {10.2514/6.2005-2364},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/987097}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2005},
month = {4}
}

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