skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

Abstract

The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies andmore » binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and sunflower hulls for the biomass material to be carbonized. The ability to remove mercury from a bituminous coal's derived flue gas was low. Removals of only 15% were attained while injecting 6 lb/Macf of activated carbon upstream of an electrostatic precipitator. Poisoning of sites on the activated carbon by SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} contributed to the poor mercury capture performance.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
University Of North Dakota
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
986864
DOE Contract Number:
FC26-98FT40320
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; ABSORPTION; ACTIVATED CARBON; AIR QUALITY; BIOMASS; CARBON; CARBON COMPOUNDS; COAL; COMBUSTION; ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS; FINE STRUCTURE; FLUE GAS; FUNCTIONALS; GASES; KINETICS; LIGNITE; MERCURY; MICROANALYSIS; PARTICULATES; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Steven Benson, Lingbu Kong, Alexander Azenkeng, Jason Laumb, Robert Jensen, Edwin Olson, Jill MacKenzie, and A.M. Rokanuzzaman. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/986864.
Steven Benson, Lingbu Kong, Alexander Azenkeng, Jason Laumb, Robert Jensen, Edwin Olson, Jill MacKenzie, & A.M. Rokanuzzaman. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods. United States. doi:10.2172/986864.
Steven Benson, Lingbu Kong, Alexander Azenkeng, Jason Laumb, Robert Jensen, Edwin Olson, Jill MacKenzie, and A.M. Rokanuzzaman. Wed . "Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods". United States. doi:10.2172/986864. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/986864.
@article{osti_986864,
title = {Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods},
author = {Steven Benson and Lingbu Kong and Alexander Azenkeng and Jason Laumb and Robert Jensen and Edwin Olson and Jill MacKenzie and A.M. Rokanuzzaman},
abstractNote = {The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and sunflower hulls for the biomass material to be carbonized. The ability to remove mercury from a bituminous coal's derived flue gas was low. Removals of only 15% were attained while injecting 6 lb/Macf of activated carbon upstream of an electrostatic precipitator. Poisoning of sites on the activated carbon by SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} contributed to the poor mercury capture performance.},
doi = {10.2172/986864},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jan 31 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Wed Jan 31 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share: