skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency

Abstract

The efficiency and stability of blue organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) continue to be a primary roadblock to developing organic solid state white lighting. For OLEDs to meet the high power conversion efficiency goal, they will require both close to 100% internal quantum efficiency and low operating voltage in a white light emitting device.1 It is generally accepted that such high quantum efficiency, can only be achieved with the use of organometallic phosphor doped OLEDs. Blue OLEDs are particularly important for solid state lighting. The simplest (and therefore likely the lowest cost) method of generating white light is to down convert part of the emission from a blue light source with a system of external phosphors.2 A second method of generating white light requires the superposition of the light from red, green and blue OLEDs in the correct ratio. Either of these two methods (and indeed any method of generating white light with a high color rendering index) critically depends on a high efficiency blue light component.3 A simple OLED generally consists of a hole-injecting anode, a preferentially hole transporting organic layer (HTL), an emissive layer that contains the recombination zone and ideally transports both holes and electrons, a preferentiallymore » electron-transporting layer (ETL) and an electron-injecting cathode. Color in state-of-the-art OLEDs is generated by an organometallic phosphor incorporated by co-sublimation into the emissive layer (EML).4 New materials functioning as hosts, emitters, charge transporting, and charge blocking layers have been developed along with device architectures leading to electrophosphorescent based OLEDs with high quantum efficiencies near the theoretical limit. However, the layers added to the device architecture to enable high quantum efficiencies lead to higher operating voltages and correspondingly lower power efficiencies. Achievement of target luminance power efficiencies will require new strategies for lowering operating voltages, particularly if this is to be achieved in a device that can be manufactured at low cost. To avoid the efficiency losses associated with phosphorescence quenching by back-energy transfer from the dopant onto the host, the triplet excited states of the host material must be higher in energy than the triplet excited state of the dopant.5 This must be accomplished without sacrificing the charge transporting properties of the composite.6 Similar problems limit the efficiency of OLED-based displays, where blue light emitters are the least efficient and least stable. We previously demonstrated the utility of organic phosphine oxide (PO) materials as electron transporting HMs for FIrpic in blue OLEDs.7 However, the high reluctance of PO materials to oxidation and thus, hole injection limits the ability to balance charge injection and transport in the EML without relying on charge transport by the phosphorescent dopant. PO host materials were engineered to transport both electrons and holes in the EML and still maintain high triplet exciton energy to ensure efficient energy transfer to the dopant (Figure 1). There are examples of combining hole transporting moieties (mainly aromatic amines) with electron transport moieties (e.g., oxadiazoles, triazines, boranes)8 to develop new emitter and host materials for small molecule and polymer9 OLEDs. The challenge is to combine the two moieties without lowering the triplet energy of the target molecule. For example, coupling of a dimesitylphenylboryl moiety with a tertiary aromatic amine (FIAMBOT) results in intramolecular electron transfer from the amine to the boron atom through the bridging phenyl. The mesomeric effect of the dimesitylphenylboryl unit acts to extend conjugation and lowers triplet exciton energies (< 2.8 eV) rendering such systems inadequate as ambipolar hosts for blue phosphors.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
986721
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-68473
19590; 830403000; TRN: US1006425
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Organic Light Emitting Materials and Devices XIII: Proceedings of the SPIE, 7415:Paper No. 74150H
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; AMINES; AROMATICS; ATOMS; BORON; CHARGE TRANSPORT; DEPLETION LAYER; EFFICIENCY; ELECTRON TRANSFER; ENERGY TRANSFER; EXCITED STATES; EXCITONS; LIGHT SOURCES; OXADIAZOLES; OXIDATION; PHOSPHINE OXIDES; QUANTUM EFFICIENCY; TRIAZINES; TUNING; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Padmaperuma, Asanga B, Koech, Phillip K, Cosimbescu, Lelia, Polikarpov, Evgueni, Swensen, James S, Chopra, Neetu, So, Franky, Sapochak, Linda S, and Gaspar, Daniel J. Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1117/12.826905.
Padmaperuma, Asanga B, Koech, Phillip K, Cosimbescu, Lelia, Polikarpov, Evgueni, Swensen, James S, Chopra, Neetu, So, Franky, Sapochak, Linda S, & Gaspar, Daniel J. Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency. United States. doi:10.1117/12.826905.
Padmaperuma, Asanga B, Koech, Phillip K, Cosimbescu, Lelia, Polikarpov, Evgueni, Swensen, James S, Chopra, Neetu, So, Franky, Sapochak, Linda S, and Gaspar, Daniel J. Thu . "Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency". United States. doi:10.1117/12.826905.
@article{osti_986721,
title = {Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency},
author = {Padmaperuma, Asanga B and Koech, Phillip K and Cosimbescu, Lelia and Polikarpov, Evgueni and Swensen, James S and Chopra, Neetu and So, Franky and Sapochak, Linda S and Gaspar, Daniel J},
abstractNote = {The efficiency and stability of blue organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) continue to be a primary roadblock to developing organic solid state white lighting. For OLEDs to meet the high power conversion efficiency goal, they will require both close to 100% internal quantum efficiency and low operating voltage in a white light emitting device.1 It is generally accepted that such high quantum efficiency, can only be achieved with the use of organometallic phosphor doped OLEDs. Blue OLEDs are particularly important for solid state lighting. The simplest (and therefore likely the lowest cost) method of generating white light is to down convert part of the emission from a blue light source with a system of external phosphors.2 A second method of generating white light requires the superposition of the light from red, green and blue OLEDs in the correct ratio. Either of these two methods (and indeed any method of generating white light with a high color rendering index) critically depends on a high efficiency blue light component.3 A simple OLED generally consists of a hole-injecting anode, a preferentially hole transporting organic layer (HTL), an emissive layer that contains the recombination zone and ideally transports both holes and electrons, a preferentially electron-transporting layer (ETL) and an electron-injecting cathode. Color in state-of-the-art OLEDs is generated by an organometallic phosphor incorporated by co-sublimation into the emissive layer (EML).4 New materials functioning as hosts, emitters, charge transporting, and charge blocking layers have been developed along with device architectures leading to electrophosphorescent based OLEDs with high quantum efficiencies near the theoretical limit. However, the layers added to the device architecture to enable high quantum efficiencies lead to higher operating voltages and correspondingly lower power efficiencies. Achievement of target luminance power efficiencies will require new strategies for lowering operating voltages, particularly if this is to be achieved in a device that can be manufactured at low cost. To avoid the efficiency losses associated with phosphorescence quenching by back-energy transfer from the dopant onto the host, the triplet excited states of the host material must be higher in energy than the triplet excited state of the dopant.5 This must be accomplished without sacrificing the charge transporting properties of the composite.6 Similar problems limit the efficiency of OLED-based displays, where blue light emitters are the least efficient and least stable. We previously demonstrated the utility of organic phosphine oxide (PO) materials as electron transporting HMs for FIrpic in blue OLEDs.7 However, the high reluctance of PO materials to oxidation and thus, hole injection limits the ability to balance charge injection and transport in the EML without relying on charge transport by the phosphorescent dopant. PO host materials were engineered to transport both electrons and holes in the EML and still maintain high triplet exciton energy to ensure efficient energy transfer to the dopant (Figure 1). There are examples of combining hole transporting moieties (mainly aromatic amines) with electron transport moieties (e.g., oxadiazoles, triazines, boranes)8 to develop new emitter and host materials for small molecule and polymer9 OLEDs. The challenge is to combine the two moieties without lowering the triplet energy of the target molecule. For example, coupling of a dimesitylphenylboryl moiety with a tertiary aromatic amine (FIAMBOT) results in intramolecular electron transfer from the amine to the boron atom through the bridging phenyl. The mesomeric effect of the dimesitylphenylboryl unit acts to extend conjugation and lowers triplet exciton energies (< 2.8 eV) rendering such systems inadequate as ambipolar hosts for blue phosphors.},
doi = {10.1117/12.826905},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2009},
month = {8}
}

Conference:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this conference proceeding.

Save / Share: