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Title: Calibration and Characterization of the IceCube Photomultiplier Tube

Abstract

Over 5,000 PMTs are being deployed at the South Pole to compose the IceCube neutrino observatory. Many are placed deep in the ice to detect Cherenkov light emitted by the products of high-energy neutrino interactions, and others are frozen into tanks on the surface to detect particles from atmospheric cosmic ray showers. IceCube is using the 10-inch diameter R7081-02 made by Hamamatsu Photonics. This paper describes the laboratory characterization and calibration of these PMTs before deployment. PMTs were illuminated with pulses ranging from single photons to saturation level. Parameterizations are given for the single photoelectron charge spectrum and the saturation behavior. Time resolution, late pulses and afterpulses are characterized. Because the PMTs are relatively large, the cathode sensitivity uniformity was measured. The absolute photon detection efficiency was calibrated using Rayleigh-scattered photons from a nitrogen laser. Measured characteristics are discussed in the context of their relevance to IceCube event reconstruction and simulation efforts.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Nuclear Science Division
OSTI Identifier:
985206
Report Number(s):
LBNL-3619E
TRN: US1006093
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Phyiscal Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Phyiscal Review Letters
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; CALIBRATION; CATHODES; DETECTION; EFFICIENCY; NEUTRINOS; NITROGEN; PHOTOMULTIPLIERS; PHOTONS; SATURATION; SENSITIVITY; SIMULATION; TANKS; TIME RESOLUTION; PMT, neutrino, cosmic rays, ice, Cherenkov

Citation Formats

IceCube Collaboration, Abbasi, R, and al, et. Calibration and Characterization of the IceCube Photomultiplier Tube. United States: N. p., 2010. Web.
IceCube Collaboration, Abbasi, R, & al, et. Calibration and Characterization of the IceCube Photomultiplier Tube. United States.
IceCube Collaboration, Abbasi, R, and al, et. Thu . "Calibration and Characterization of the IceCube Photomultiplier Tube". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/985206.
@article{osti_985206,
title = {Calibration and Characterization of the IceCube Photomultiplier Tube},
author = {IceCube Collaboration and Abbasi, R and al, et},
abstractNote = {Over 5,000 PMTs are being deployed at the South Pole to compose the IceCube neutrino observatory. Many are placed deep in the ice to detect Cherenkov light emitted by the products of high-energy neutrino interactions, and others are frozen into tanks on the surface to detect particles from atmospheric cosmic ray showers. IceCube is using the 10-inch diameter R7081-02 made by Hamamatsu Photonics. This paper describes the laboratory characterization and calibration of these PMTs before deployment. PMTs were illuminated with pulses ranging from single photons to saturation level. Parameterizations are given for the single photoelectron charge spectrum and the saturation behavior. Time resolution, late pulses and afterpulses are characterized. Because the PMTs are relatively large, the cathode sensitivity uniformity was measured. The absolute photon detection efficiency was calibrated using Rayleigh-scattered photons from a nitrogen laser. Measured characteristics are discussed in the context of their relevance to IceCube event reconstruction and simulation efforts.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/985206}, journal = {Phyiscal Review Letters},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2010},
month = {2}
}