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Title: FEA Analysis of AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens (Current Design)

Abstract

The AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens is a pulsed device which focuses anti-protons just downstream of the Target. Since the angles at which the anti-protons depart the Target can be quite large, a very high focusing strength is required to maximize anti-proton capture into the downstream Debuncher Ring. The current design of the Collection Lens was designed to operate with a focusing gradient of 1,000 T/m. However, multiple failures of early devices resulted in lowering the normal operating gradient to about 750 T/m. At this gradient, the Lens design fares much better, lasting several million pulses, but ultimately still fails. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been performed on this Collection Lens design to help determine the cause and/or nature of the failures. The Collection Lens magnetic field is created by passing high current through a central conductor cylinder. A uniform current distribution through the cylinder will create a tangential or azimuthal magnetic field that varies linearly from zero at the center of the cylinder to a maximum at the outer surface of the cylinder. Anti-proton particles passing through this cylinder (along the longitudinal direction) will see an inward focusing kick back toward the center of the cylinder proportional tomore » the magnetic field strength. For the current Lens design a gradient of 1,000 T/m requires a current of about 580,000 amps. Since the DC power and cooling requirements would be prohibitive, the Lens is operated in a pulsed mode. Each pulse is half sine wave in shape with a pulse duration of about 350 microseconds. Because of the skin effect, the most uniform current density actually occurs about two-thirds of the way through the pulse. This means that the maximum current of the pulse is actually higher than that required in the DC case (about 670,000 amps). Since the beam must pass through the central conductor cylinder it must be made of a conducting material that is also very 'transparent' to the beam. For the Collection Lens, this material is lithium (Li). The central conductor cylinder is a lithium cylinder 1 cm in radius and about 14 cm long. Figure 1 shows this cylinder in a cross-section view of the Collection Lens. Surrounding the central cylinder is a jacket of titanium alloy (6Al-4V ELI) called the septum. The septum's purpose is to contain the lithium against various thermal and magnetic forces while allowing cooling (melting point of Li is 180.5 C) by an annular water passage. The ends of the Li cylinder are bound by end windows made of beryllium (Be) and a thin titanium (ti) foil. The foil protects the Be from the corrosive effects of Li and the Be window provides the structural support. The two end windows sit in pockets in the ends of two larger steel cylinders or body halves. The body halves are separated from each other by ceramic spacers. The body halves, septum and end windows are connected to each other by nickel (Ni) seals which preserve the boundary of the lithium conductor. Force required to make these seals is provided by eight Ti 6Al-4V ELI tie rods which traverse the entire assembly. These tie rods also resist magnetic forces that attempt to separate the body halves during the current pulse. There are several insulating components that are used to isolate one side of the lens from the other and force the current through the central Li conductor. The volumes of Li at each end of the central conductor cylinder outside the septum but inside the body halves are called buffer volumes. These buffer volumes serve two roles. One, they provide a low resistance current path to the end of the central conductor cylinder. Two, they provide a volume for Li to expand into during the current pulse. For the latter it is assumed that magnetic forces and thermal strains will force lithium from the central cylinder and into the buffer volumes during the current pulse. There are several loads on the Lens that are developed during a current pulse. High magnetic loads act radially and longitudinally outward on the steel body halves and radially inward on the central conductor cylinder. This latter force on the Li cylinder is termed the magnetic pinch effect and could result in the separation of the Li from the septum inner wall. To prevent this from happening, the Li is actually pre-loaded when the Lens is filled. During the current pulse, ohmic losses heat the various components and create thermal strains. This, coupled with beam losses, create non-uniform displacements and therefore stresses in the Lens components. Finally, the pre-loaded tie rods add yet another load to the Lens. Since the geometry, materials, and loads are so complex and interdependent, an analysis should try to integrate all these aspects in one model if possible. ANSYS finite element code has been utilized in an attempt to do so. The results are hoped to shed light on why the current Collection Lens design fails at high gradient (short term) and low gradient (long term).« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
984570
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PBAR-NOTE-663
TRN: US1005985
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; BERYLLIUM; BUFFERS; CERAMICS; CORROSIVE EFFECTS; CURRENT DENSITY; FOCUSING; GEOMETRY; LITHIUM; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MELTING; NICKEL; PINCH EFFECT; SKIN EFFECT; SPACERS; STEELS; STRAINS; STRESSES; TARGETS; TITANIUM; TITANIUM ALLOYS; Accelerators

Citation Formats

Hurh, P. G., and Tang, Z. FEA Analysis of AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens (Current Design). United States: N. p., 2001. Web. doi:10.2172/984570.
Hurh, P. G., & Tang, Z. FEA Analysis of AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens (Current Design). United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/984570
Hurh, P. G., and Tang, Z. 2001. "FEA Analysis of AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens (Current Design)". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/984570. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/984570.
@article{osti_984570,
title = {FEA Analysis of AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens (Current Design)},
author = {Hurh, P. G. and Tang, Z.},
abstractNote = {The AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens is a pulsed device which focuses anti-protons just downstream of the Target. Since the angles at which the anti-protons depart the Target can be quite large, a very high focusing strength is required to maximize anti-proton capture into the downstream Debuncher Ring. The current design of the Collection Lens was designed to operate with a focusing gradient of 1,000 T/m. However, multiple failures of early devices resulted in lowering the normal operating gradient to about 750 T/m. At this gradient, the Lens design fares much better, lasting several million pulses, but ultimately still fails. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been performed on this Collection Lens design to help determine the cause and/or nature of the failures. The Collection Lens magnetic field is created by passing high current through a central conductor cylinder. A uniform current distribution through the cylinder will create a tangential or azimuthal magnetic field that varies linearly from zero at the center of the cylinder to a maximum at the outer surface of the cylinder. Anti-proton particles passing through this cylinder (along the longitudinal direction) will see an inward focusing kick back toward the center of the cylinder proportional to the magnetic field strength. For the current Lens design a gradient of 1,000 T/m requires a current of about 580,000 amps. Since the DC power and cooling requirements would be prohibitive, the Lens is operated in a pulsed mode. Each pulse is half sine wave in shape with a pulse duration of about 350 microseconds. Because of the skin effect, the most uniform current density actually occurs about two-thirds of the way through the pulse. This means that the maximum current of the pulse is actually higher than that required in the DC case (about 670,000 amps). Since the beam must pass through the central conductor cylinder it must be made of a conducting material that is also very 'transparent' to the beam. For the Collection Lens, this material is lithium (Li). The central conductor cylinder is a lithium cylinder 1 cm in radius and about 14 cm long. Figure 1 shows this cylinder in a cross-section view of the Collection Lens. Surrounding the central cylinder is a jacket of titanium alloy (6Al-4V ELI) called the septum. The septum's purpose is to contain the lithium against various thermal and magnetic forces while allowing cooling (melting point of Li is 180.5 C) by an annular water passage. The ends of the Li cylinder are bound by end windows made of beryllium (Be) and a thin titanium (ti) foil. The foil protects the Be from the corrosive effects of Li and the Be window provides the structural support. The two end windows sit in pockets in the ends of two larger steel cylinders or body halves. The body halves are separated from each other by ceramic spacers. The body halves, septum and end windows are connected to each other by nickel (Ni) seals which preserve the boundary of the lithium conductor. Force required to make these seals is provided by eight Ti 6Al-4V ELI tie rods which traverse the entire assembly. These tie rods also resist magnetic forces that attempt to separate the body halves during the current pulse. There are several insulating components that are used to isolate one side of the lens from the other and force the current through the central Li conductor. The volumes of Li at each end of the central conductor cylinder outside the septum but inside the body halves are called buffer volumes. These buffer volumes serve two roles. One, they provide a low resistance current path to the end of the central conductor cylinder. Two, they provide a volume for Li to expand into during the current pulse. For the latter it is assumed that magnetic forces and thermal strains will force lithium from the central cylinder and into the buffer volumes during the current pulse. There are several loads on the Lens that are developed during a current pulse. High magnetic loads act radially and longitudinally outward on the steel body halves and radially inward on the central conductor cylinder. This latter force on the Li cylinder is termed the magnetic pinch effect and could result in the separation of the Li from the septum inner wall. To prevent this from happening, the Li is actually pre-loaded when the Lens is filled. During the current pulse, ohmic losses heat the various components and create thermal strains. This, coupled with beam losses, create non-uniform displacements and therefore stresses in the Lens components. Finally, the pre-loaded tie rods add yet another load to the Lens. Since the geometry, materials, and loads are so complex and interdependent, an analysis should try to integrate all these aspects in one model if possible. ANSYS finite element code has been utilized in an attempt to do so. The results are hoped to shed light on why the current Collection Lens design fails at high gradient (short term) and low gradient (long term).},
doi = {10.2172/984570},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/984570}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2001},
month = {6}
}