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Title: Fracture toughness of irradiated wrought and cast austenitic stainless steels in BWR environment.

Abstract

In light water reactors, austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in reactor core internal components because of their high strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. Exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods degrades the fracture properties of these steels by changing the material microstructure (e.g., radiation hardening) and microchemistry (e.g., radiation-induced segregation). We look at the results of a study of simulated light-water reactor coolants, material chemistry, and irradiation damage and their effects on the susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of various commercially available and laboratory-melted stainless steels.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USNRC
OSTI Identifier:
982624
Report Number(s):
ANL/NE/CP-59818
TRN: US201015%%1234
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 13th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems; Aug. 19, 2007 - Aug. 23, 2007; Whistler, B.C., Canada
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; ENVIRONMENT; FRACTURE PROPERTIES; NUCLEAR POWER; RADIATION HARDENING; REACTOR CORES; STAINLESS STEELS; STEELS; STRESS CORROSION; VISIBLE RADIATION

Citation Formats

Chopra, O. K., Gruber, E. E., and Shack, W. J. Fracture toughness of irradiated wrought and cast austenitic stainless steels in BWR environment.. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Chopra, O. K., Gruber, E. E., & Shack, W. J. Fracture toughness of irradiated wrought and cast austenitic stainless steels in BWR environment.. United States.
Chopra, O. K., Gruber, E. E., and Shack, W. J. Mon . "Fracture toughness of irradiated wrought and cast austenitic stainless steels in BWR environment.". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_982624,
title = {Fracture toughness of irradiated wrought and cast austenitic stainless steels in BWR environment.},
author = {Chopra, O. K. and Gruber, E. E. and Shack, W. J.},
abstractNote = {In light water reactors, austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in reactor core internal components because of their high strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. Exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods degrades the fracture properties of these steels by changing the material microstructure (e.g., radiation hardening) and microchemistry (e.g., radiation-induced segregation). We look at the results of a study of simulated light-water reactor coolants, material chemistry, and irradiation damage and their effects on the susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of various commercially available and laboratory-melted stainless steels.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

Conference:
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  • In light water reactors, austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in reactor core internal components because of their high strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods degrades the fracture properties of these steels by changing the material microstructure (e.g., radiation hardening) and microchemistry (e.g., radiation-induced segregation). Experimental data are presented on the fracture toughness and crack growth rates (CGRs) of wrought and cast austenitic SSs, including weld heat-affected-zone materials, that were irradiated to fluence levels as high as {approx} 2x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1more » MeV) ({approx} 3 dpa) in a light water reactor at 288-300 C. The results are compared with the data available in the literature. The effects of material composition, irradiation dose, and water chemistry on CGRs under cyclic and stress corrosion cracking conditions were determined. A superposition model was used to represent the cyclic CGRs of austenitic SSs. The effects of neutron irradiation on the fracture toughness of these steels, as well as the effects of material and irradiation conditions and test temperature, have been evaluated. A fracture toughness trend curve that bounds the existing data has been defined. The synergistic effects of thermal and radiation embrittlement of cast austenitic SS internal components have also been evaluated.« less
  • A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting fracture toughness J-R curves and impact strength of aged cast stainless steels from known material information. The saturation'' fracture toughness of a specific cast stainless steel, i.e., the minimum fracture toughness that would ever be achieved for the material after long-term service, is estimated from the degree of embrittlement at saturation. Degree of embrittlement is characterized in terms of room-temperature Charpy-impact energy. The variation of the impact energy at saturation for different materials is described in terms of a material parameter {Phi}, which is determined from the chemical composition and ferrite morphology.more » The fracture toughness J-R curve for the material is then obtained from correlations between room-temperature Charpy-impact energy and fracture toughness. Fracture toughness as a function of time and temperature of reactor service is estimated from the kinetics of embrittlement, which is determined from the chemical composition. Examples for estimating impact strength and fracture toughness of cast stainless steel components during reactor service are described. A common lower-bound'' J-R curve for cast stainless steels with unknown chemical composition is also defined. 15 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.« less
  • Austenitic stainless steels are used extensively as structural alloys in reactor pressure vessel internal components because of their superior fracture toughness properties. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods leads to significant reduction in the fracture resistance of these steels. This paper presents results of fracture toughness J-R curve tests on four heats of Type 304 stainless steel that were irradiated to fluence levels of {approx}0.3 and 0.9 x 10{sup 21} n cm{sup {minus}2} (E >1 MeV) at {approx}288 C in a helium environment in the Halden heavy water boiling reactor. The tests were performed onmore » 1/4-T compact tension specimens in air at 288 C; crack extensions were determined by both DC potential and elastic unloading compliance techniques.« less
  • To prepare for this project, EPRI and BWRVIP conducted a workshop at Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida during February 19-21, 2003 (EPRI report 1007822). Attendees were invited to exchange relevant information on the effects of irradiation on austenitic materials in light water reactors and to produce recommendations for further work. EPRI reviewed the data, recommendations, and conclusions derived from the workshop and developed prioritized test matrices defining new data needs. Proposals were solicited, and selected proposals are the basis for the program described in this report. Results The planned test matrix for fracture toughness testing includes 21 tests on 5 materials.