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Title: Residual stress measurements of welded components using synchrotron and neutron diffraction.

Abstract

Residual stress remains the single largest unknown in industrial damage situations. Residual stresses have a significant effect on corrosion, fracture resistance, creep and corrosion/fatigue performance and a reduction of these stresses is normally desirable. In this research high energy synchrotron (70 keV) radiation (at the Advanced Photon Source) and thermal neutrons (at the Lucas Heights Research Reactor) have been employed to investigate and compare the residual stress characteristics in fully restrained samples with different numbers of weld beads. The aim of the research was to characterize the residual stress distribution which arises in a welded component with increasing number of beads. The number and resolution of the measurements carried out in this work reveal significant features of the residual stress pattern in single bead in the as-welded condition and after post-weld heat treatment. The intention is to provide key data for the validation of design, fitness-for-purpose methodologies and finite-element tools. In this presentation the details of the synchrotron X-ray and neutron techniques will be compared and contrasted, utilizing results from a number of weldment samples.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); WTIA; ANSTO; AINSE; ASRP
OSTI Identifier:
982617
Report Number(s):
ANL/XSD/CP-59437
Journal ID: 0043-2288; TRN: US1005342
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Weld. World; Journal Volume: 51; Journal Issue: 2007; Conference: 60th Annual Assembly and International Conference on Welding (IIW 2007); Jul. 1, 2007 - Jul. 8, 2007; Cavtat and Dubrovnik, Croatia
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE; CORROSION FATIGUE; HEAT TREATMENTS; NEUTRON DIFFRACTION; NEUTRONS; RESEARCH REACTORS; RESIDUAL STRESSES; SYNCHROTRONS; THERMAL NEUTRONS; WELDED JOINTS; WELDING

Citation Formats

Paradowska, A. M., Price, J. W .H, Finlayson, T. R., Lienert, U., Ibrahim, R., Monash Univ., and Univ. of Melbourne. Residual stress measurements of welded components using synchrotron and neutron diffraction.. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Paradowska, A. M., Price, J. W .H, Finlayson, T. R., Lienert, U., Ibrahim, R., Monash Univ., & Univ. of Melbourne. Residual stress measurements of welded components using synchrotron and neutron diffraction.. United States.
Paradowska, A. M., Price, J. W .H, Finlayson, T. R., Lienert, U., Ibrahim, R., Monash Univ., and Univ. of Melbourne. Mon . "Residual stress measurements of welded components using synchrotron and neutron diffraction.". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_982617,
title = {Residual stress measurements of welded components using synchrotron and neutron diffraction.},
author = {Paradowska, A. M. and Price, J. W .H and Finlayson, T. R. and Lienert, U. and Ibrahim, R. and Monash Univ. and Univ. of Melbourne},
abstractNote = {Residual stress remains the single largest unknown in industrial damage situations. Residual stresses have a significant effect on corrosion, fracture resistance, creep and corrosion/fatigue performance and a reduction of these stresses is normally desirable. In this research high energy synchrotron (70 keV) radiation (at the Advanced Photon Source) and thermal neutrons (at the Lucas Heights Research Reactor) have been employed to investigate and compare the residual stress characteristics in fully restrained samples with different numbers of weld beads. The aim of the research was to characterize the residual stress distribution which arises in a welded component with increasing number of beads. The number and resolution of the measurements carried out in this work reveal significant features of the residual stress pattern in single bead in the as-welded condition and after post-weld heat treatment. The intention is to provide key data for the validation of design, fitness-for-purpose methodologies and finite-element tools. In this presentation the details of the synchrotron X-ray and neutron techniques will be compared and contrasted, utilizing results from a number of weldment samples.},
doi = {},
journal = {Weld. World},
number = 2007,
volume = 51,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

Conference:
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  • This paper is dedicated to the thorough experimental analysis of the residual stresses in the vicinity of tubular welds and the mechanisms involved in their formation. Pipes made of a ferritic-pearlitic structural steel and an austenitic stainless steel are investigated in this study. The pipes feature a similar geometry and are MAG welded with two passes and comparable parameters. Residual strain mappings are carried out using X-ray and neutron diffraction. The combined use of both techniques permits both near-surface and through-wall analyses of the residual stresses. The findings allow for a consistent interpretation of the mechanisms accounting for the formationmore » of the residual stress fields due to the welding process. Since the results are similar for both materials, it can be concluded that residual stresses induced by phase transformations, which can occur in the structural steel, play a minor role in this regard.« less
  • This paper explores the use of neutron and synchrotron diffractions for the evaluation of residual stresses in welded components. It has been shown that it is possible to achieve very good agreement between the two independent diffraction techniques. This study shows the significance of the weld start and end sites on the residual strain/stress distribution. Quantitative evaluation of the residual stress development process for multibead weldments has been presented. Some measurements were also taken before and after postweld stress relieving to establish the reduction and redistribution of the residual stress. The detailed measurements of residual stress around the weld achievedmore » in this work significantly improve the knowledge and understanding of residual stress in welded components.« less
  • 70 keV synchrotron radiation and thermal neutrons have been employed to investigate the residual stress characteristics in a fully restrained, steel, butt weld. The focus is on the values of the subsurface and through-thickness strain/stress variation in the middle of the weld. The advantages and limitations of the techniques have been addressed, in relation to the gauge volume, the stress-free reference sample and positioning. The measurement of residual stress around the weld achieved in this work significantly improves the resolution at which residual stress in welded components has been determined.
  • Increasingly, sub-surface residual stress measurements by means of neutron diffraction are being conducted at various laboratories around the world. Unlike X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement setups, neutron instruments in use worldwide vary widely in design, neutron flux, and level of dedication towards residual stress measurements. Although confidence in the neutron technique has increased within the materials science and engineering communities, no demonstration of standardization or consistency between laboratories has been made. One of the steps in the direction of such standardization is the development of standard specimens, that have well characterized residual stress states and which could be examined worldwide.more » In this paper the authors will examine two options for a neutron stress standard specimen: (1) a steel ring-plug specimen with very well defined diametrical interference; (2) a spot weld in a High Strength Low Alloy steel disk. The results of neutron residual stress measurements on these specimens will be discussed and conclusions as to their usefulness as neutron stress standards will be presented.« less