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Title: Variation of fundamental constants.

Abstract

No abstract prepared.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); FOR
OSTI Identifier:
982023
Report Number(s):
ANL/PHY/CP-119145
Journal ID: 0094-243X; TRN: US1004257
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 20th International Conference on Atomic Physics; Jul. 16, 2006 - Jul. 21, 2006; Innsbruck, Austria
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ATOMIC PHYSICS; FUNDAMENTAL CONSTANTS; MEETINGS; VARIATIONS

Citation Formats

Flambaum, V. V., Physics, and Univ. of New South Wales. Variation of fundamental constants.. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Flambaum, V. V., Physics, & Univ. of New South Wales. Variation of fundamental constants.. United States.
Flambaum, V. V., Physics, and Univ. of New South Wales. Sun . "Variation of fundamental constants.". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_982023,
title = {Variation of fundamental constants.},
author = {Flambaum, V. V. and Physics and Univ. of New South Wales},
abstractNote = {No abstract prepared.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

Conference:
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  • We present a review of recent works on variation of fundamental constants and violation of parity in atoms and nuclei.Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental 'constants' in expanding Universe. The spatial variation can explain fine tuning of the fundamental constants which allows humans (and any life) to appear. We appeared in the area of the Universe where the values of the fundamental constants are consistent with our existence.We describe recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant {alpha}, strong interaction and fundamental masses (Higgs vacuum). There are some hintsmore » for the variation in quasar absorption spectra, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data.A very promising method to search for the variation consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transitions between very close atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a 'nuclear' clock based on UV transition in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude. Measurements of violation of fundamental symmetries, parity (P) and time reversal (T), in atoms allows one to test unification theories in atomic experiments. We have developed an accurate method of many-body calculations - all-orders summation of dominating diagrams in residual e-e interaction. To calculate QED radiative corrections to energy levels and electromagnetic amplitudes in many-electron atoms and molecules we derived the ''radiative potential'' and the low-energy theorem. This method is simple and can be easily incorporated into any many-body theory approach. Using the radiative correction and many-body calculations we obtained the PNC amplitude EPNC = -0.898(1 {+-} 0.5%) x 10-11ieaB(-QW/N). From the measurements of the PNC amplitude we extracted the Cs weak charge QW = -72.66(29)exp(36)theor. The difference with the standard model value Q{sub W}{sup SM} = -73.19 is Q{sub W} - Q{sub W}{sup SM} = 0.53(48)« less
  • Atomic microwave clocks based on hyperfine transitions, such as the caesium standard, tick with a frequency that is proportional to the magnetic moment of the nucleus. This magnetic moment varies strongly between isotopes of the same atom, while all atomic electron parameters remain the same. Therefore the comparison of two microwave clocks based on different isotopes of the same atom can be used to constrain variation of fundamental constants. In this paper, we calculate the neutron and proton contributions to the nuclear magnetic moments, as well as their sensitivity to any potential quark-mass variation, in a number of isotopes ofmore » experimental interest including {sup 201,199}Hg and {sup 87,85}Rb, where experiments are underway. We also include a brief treatment of the dependence of the hyperfine transitions to variation in nuclear radius, which in turn is proportional to any change in quark mass. Our calculations of expectation values of proton and neutron spin in nuclei are also needed to interpret measurements of violations of fundamental symmetries.« less
  • Citrate is among the organic anions that are expected to be present in the wastes planned for deposition in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository. In this study, a solvent extraction method has been used to measure the stability constants of Thorium(IV)[Th(IV)] with citrate anions in aqueous solutions with (a) NaClO{sub 4} and (b) NaCl as the background electrolytes. The ionic strengths were varied up to 5 m (NaCl) and 14 m (NaClO{sub 4}). The data from the NaClO{sub 4} solutions at varying pH values were used to calculate the hydrolysis constants for formation of Th(OH){sup 3+} at the differentmore » ionic strengths.« less
  • Time dependence of the fundamental ''constants'' is examined within the framework of Kaluza-Klein theories. Relationships among low-energy couplings and masses are derived. It is suggested that detection of a time variation in any of these parameters may provide evidence for extra space dimensions. Experimental bounds are reviewed and new measurements advocated.
  • This paper makes the simple observation that a fundamental length, or cutoff, in the context of Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology implies very different things than for a static universe. It is argued that it is reasonable to assume that this cutoff is implemented by fixing the number of quantum degrees of freedom per co-moving volume (as opposed to a Planck volume) and the relationship of the vacuum-energy of all of the fields in the theory to the cosmological constant (or dark energy) is re-examined. The restrictions that need to be satisfied by a generic theory to avoid conflicts with current experimentsmore » are discussed, and it is shown that in any theory satisfying these constraints knowing the difference between w and minus one allows one to predict w. It is argued that this is a robust result and if this prediction fails the idea of a fundamental cutoff of the type being discussed can be ruled out. Finally, it is observed that, within the context of a specific theory, a co-moving cutoff implies a predictable time variation of fundamental constants. This is accompanied by a general discussion of why this is so, what are the strongest phenomenological limits upon this predicted variation, and which limits are in tension with the idea of a co-moving cutoff. It is pointed out, however, that a careful comparison of the predicted time variation of fundamental constants is not possible without restricting to a particular model field-theory and that is not done in this paper.« less