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Title: Conformational Variations of Both Phosphodiesterase-5 and Inhibitors Provide the Structural Basis for the Physiological Effects of Vardenafil and Sildenafil

Abstract

Vardenafil has higher affinity to phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) than sildenafil and lower administered dosage for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, the molecular basis for these differences is puzzling because two drugs have similar chemical structures. Reported here is a crystal structure of the fully active and nonmutated PDE5A1 catalytic domain in complex with vardenafil. The structure shows that the conformation of the H-loop in the PDE5A1-vardenafil complex is different from those of any known structures of the unliganded PDE5 and its complexes with the inhibitors. In addition, the molecular configuration of vardenafil differs from that of sildenafil when bound to PDE5. It is noteworthy that the binding of vardenafil causes loss of the divalent metal ions that have been observed in all the previously published PDE structures. The conformational variation of both PDE5 and the inhibitors provides structural insight into the different potencies of the drugs.

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) National Synchrotron Light Source
Sponsoring Org.:
Doe - Office Of Science
OSTI Identifier:
980079
Report Number(s):
BNL-92997-2010-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0026-895X; MOPMA3; TRN: US201015%%1464
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Molecular Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 73; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS//MATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND INFORMATION SCIENCE; AFFINITY; COMPLEXES; CONFIGURATION; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; DRUGS; IONS; METALS; VARIATIONS; national synchrotron light source

Citation Formats

Wang, H., Ye, M, Robinson, H, Fransis, S, and Ke, H. Conformational Variations of Both Phosphodiesterase-5 and Inhibitors Provide the Structural Basis for the Physiological Effects of Vardenafil and Sildenafil. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1124/mol.107.040212.
Wang, H., Ye, M, Robinson, H, Fransis, S, & Ke, H. Conformational Variations of Both Phosphodiesterase-5 and Inhibitors Provide the Structural Basis for the Physiological Effects of Vardenafil and Sildenafil. United States. doi:10.1124/mol.107.040212.
Wang, H., Ye, M, Robinson, H, Fransis, S, and Ke, H. Mon . "Conformational Variations of Both Phosphodiesterase-5 and Inhibitors Provide the Structural Basis for the Physiological Effects of Vardenafil and Sildenafil". United States. doi:10.1124/mol.107.040212.
@article{osti_980079,
title = {Conformational Variations of Both Phosphodiesterase-5 and Inhibitors Provide the Structural Basis for the Physiological Effects of Vardenafil and Sildenafil},
author = {Wang, H. and Ye, M and Robinson, H and Fransis, S and Ke, H},
abstractNote = {Vardenafil has higher affinity to phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) than sildenafil and lower administered dosage for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, the molecular basis for these differences is puzzling because two drugs have similar chemical structures. Reported here is a crystal structure of the fully active and nonmutated PDE5A1 catalytic domain in complex with vardenafil. The structure shows that the conformation of the H-loop in the PDE5A1-vardenafil complex is different from those of any known structures of the unliganded PDE5 and its complexes with the inhibitors. In addition, the molecular configuration of vardenafil differs from that of sildenafil when bound to PDE5. It is noteworthy that the binding of vardenafil causes loss of the divalent metal ions that have been observed in all the previously published PDE structures. The conformational variation of both PDE5 and the inhibitors provides structural insight into the different potencies of the drugs.},
doi = {10.1124/mol.107.040212},
journal = {Molecular Pharmacology},
number = 1,
volume = 73,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Vardenafil has higher affinity to phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) than sildenafil and lower administered dosage for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, the molecular basis for these differences is puzzling because two drugs have similar chemical structures. Reported here is a crystal structure of the fully active and nonmutated PDE5A1 catalytic domain in complex with vardenafil. The structure shows that the conformation of the H-loop in the PDE5A1-vardenafil complex is different from those of any known structures of the unliganded PDE5 and its complexes with the inhibitors. In addition, the molecular configuration of vardenafil differs from that of sildenafil when bound tomore » PDE5. It is noteworthy that the binding of vardenafil causes loss of the divalent metal ions that have been observed in all the previously published PDE structures. The conformational variation of both PDE5 and the inhibitors provides structural insight into the different potencies of the drugs.« less
  • Selective inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) have been used as drugs for treatment of male erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. An insight into the pharmacophores of PDE5 inhibitors is essential for development of second generation of PDE5 inhibitors, but has not been completely illustrated. Here we report the synthesis of a new class of the sildenafil derivatives and a crystal structure of the PDE5 catalytic domain in complex with 5-(2-ethoxy-5-(sulfamoyl)-3-thienyl)-1-methyl-3-propyl-1, 6-dihydro-7H-pyrazolo[4, 3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (12). Inhibitor 12 induces conformational change of the H-loop (residues 660-683), which is different from any of the known PDE5 structures. The pyrazolopyrimidinone groups of 12 andmore » sildenafil are well superimposed, but their sulfonamide groups show a positional difference of as much as 1.5 Angstroms . The structure-activity analysis suggests that a small hydrophobic pocket and the H-loop of PDE5 are important for the inhibitor affinity, in addition to two common elements for binding of almost all the PDE inhibitors: the stack against the phenylalanine and the hydrogen bond with the invariant glutamine. However, the PDE5-12 structure does not provide a full explanation to affinity changes of the inhibitors. Thus alternatives such as conformational change of the M-loop are open and further structural study is required.« less
  • PDE4 (phosphodiesterase-4)-selective inhibitors have attracted much attention as potential therapeutics for the treatment of both depression and major inflammatory diseases, but their practical application has been compromised by side effects. A possible cause for the side effects is that current PDE4-selective inhibitors similarly inhibit isoforms from all four PDE4 subfamilies. The development of PDE4 subfamily-selective inhibitors has been hampered by a lack of structural information. In the present study, we rectify this by providing the crystal structures of the catalytic domains of PDE4A, PDE4B and PDE4D in complex with the PDE4 inhibitor NVP 4-[8-(3-nitrophenyl)-[1,7]naphthyridin-6-yl]benzoic acid as well as the unligandedmore » PDE4C structure. NVP binds in the same conformation to the deep cAMP substrate pocket and interacts with the same residues in each instance. However, detailed structural comparison reveals significant conformational differences. Although the active sites of PDE4B and PDE4D are mostly comparable, PDE4A shows significant displacements of the residues next to the invariant glutamine residue that is critical for substrate and inhibitor binding. PDE4C appears to be more distal from other PDE4 subfamilies, with certain key residues being disordered. Our analyses provide the first structural basis for the development of PDE4 subfamily-selective inhibitors.« less
  • Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) controls intracellular levels of cGMP through its regulation of cGMP hydrolysis. Hydrolytic activity of the C-terminal catalytic domain is increased by cGMP binding to the N-terminal GAF A domain. We present the NMR solution structure of the cGMP-bound PDE5A GAF A domain. The cGMP orientation in the buried binding pocket was defined through 37 intermolecular NOEs.
  • PDE7 inhibitors regulate pro-inflammatory and immune T-cell functions, and are a potentially novel class of drugs particularly useful for treatment of a wide variety of immune and inflammatory disorders. Structural optimization of thioxoquinazoline derivatives led to new compounds with very interesting profiles as PDE7 or PDE7/PDE4 dual inhibitors, which may be further developed as new drugs for inflammatory and neurological diseases.