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Title: Cerium-Doped Mixed-Alkali Rare-Earth Double-Phosphate Scintillators for X- and Gamma-Ray Detection

Abstract

X-ray and Gamma-Ray Detector Physics and Penetrating Radiation Systems VIII, Proceedings of the SPIE. Vol. 6319, 631907 (2006).

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [2]
  1. ORNL
  2. University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)
  3. Siemens Medical Solutions, Knoxville
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Work for Others (WFO)
OSTI Identifier:
979581
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Proceedings of SPIE; Journal Volume: 6319
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; PHOSPHORS; CERIUM; DOPED MATERIALS; POTASSIUM PHOSPHATES; LUTETIUM PHOSPHATES; RUBIDIUM PHOSPHATES; CESIUM PHOSPHATES; LITHIUM PHOSPHATES; EFFICIENCY; KINETICS; SCINTILLATIONS

Citation Formats

Neal, John S, Boatner, Lynn A, Spurrier, Merry, Szupryczynski, Piotr, and Melcher, Charles L. Cerium-Doped Mixed-Alkali Rare-Earth Double-Phosphate Scintillators for X- and Gamma-Ray Detection. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1117/12.683884.
Neal, John S, Boatner, Lynn A, Spurrier, Merry, Szupryczynski, Piotr, & Melcher, Charles L. Cerium-Doped Mixed-Alkali Rare-Earth Double-Phosphate Scintillators for X- and Gamma-Ray Detection. United States. doi:10.1117/12.683884.
Neal, John S, Boatner, Lynn A, Spurrier, Merry, Szupryczynski, Piotr, and Melcher, Charles L. Sun . "Cerium-Doped Mixed-Alkali Rare-Earth Double-Phosphate Scintillators for X- and Gamma-Ray Detection". United States. doi:10.1117/12.683884.
@article{osti_979581,
title = {Cerium-Doped Mixed-Alkali Rare-Earth Double-Phosphate Scintillators for X- and Gamma-Ray Detection},
author = {Neal, John S and Boatner, Lynn A and Spurrier, Merry and Szupryczynski, Piotr and Melcher, Charles L},
abstractNote = {X-ray and Gamma-Ray Detector Physics and Penetrating Radiation Systems VIII, Proceedings of the SPIE. Vol. 6319, 631907 (2006).},
doi = {10.1117/12.683884},
journal = {Proceedings of SPIE},
number = ,
volume = 6319,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • When activated with an appropriate rare-earth ion (e.g., Ce or Nd), rare-earth orthophosphates of the form REPO4 (where RE = a rare-earth cation) and alkali rare-earth double phosphates of the form A{sub 3}RE(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} (where A = K, Rb, or Cs) are characterized by light yields and decay times that make these materials of interest for radiation-detection applications. Crystals of the compound Rb{sub 3}Lu(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} when activated with {approx}0.1 mol % Ce exhibit a light yield that is {approx}250% that of BGO with a decay time on the order of {approx}40 nsec. The cerium-activated rare-earth orthophosphate LuPO{sub 4}:Cemore » is also characterized by a high light yield and a relatively fast decay time of {approx}25 nsec. Additionally, the rare-earth orthophosphates are extremely chemically, physically, and thermally durable hosts that recover easily from radiation damage effects. The properties of the rare-earth orthophosphates and double phosphates that pertain to their use as X- and gamma-ray detectors are reviewed. This review includes information related to the use of Nd-doped LuPO{sub 4} as a scintillator with a sufficiently energetic, short-wavelength output ({lambda} = 90 nm) so that it can be used in conjunction with appropriately activated proportional counters. Information is presented on the details of the synthesis, structure, and luminescence properties of lanthanide double phosphates that, when activated with cerium, are efficient scintillators with output wavelengths that are sufficiently long to be well matched to the response of silicon photodiode detectors.« less
  • Single crystals of Ce-activated BaCl{sub 2}, BaBr{sub 2}, and BaI{sub 2} were investigated under x-ray and {gamma}-ray excitation. The Ce{sup 3+}-related x-ray excited luminescence in BaBr{sub 2} shifts significantly to longer wavelengths upon increasing the doping level from 0.1% to 1%. In Ce-activated BaCl{sub 2} only a slight shift can be observed. BaI{sub 2} does not show any Ce{sup 3+}-related emission. Scintillation decay time measurements show that the decay in BaBr{sub 2} is delayed due to migration processes. Additional K doping has a large influence on the scintillation decay time properties but not on the overall efficiency.
  • The crystal structures of five new alkali rare earth diphosphates were obtained by Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles, including four alkali lutetium diphosphates ALuP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=Na, K, Rb, Cs) and the low temperature phase of KYP{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The scintillation properties of Ce{sup 3+}-doped AREP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=Na, K, Rb, Cs; RE=Y, Lu) powder samples were studied under static and pulsed X-ray excitations, and featured outstanding scintillation properties with light yields 1-2 times of that of Bi{sub 4}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 3} and relatively short decay time of 20-28 ns. Considering the suitable emission wavelength range, large lightmore » yield, short decay time, and non-hygroscopic nature, Ce{sup 3+}-doped AREP{sub 2}O{sub 7}-type alkali rare earth diphosphates are potential candidates for high-counting-rate scintillation applications. - Graphical abstract: The perspective view of KLuP{sub 2}O{sub 7} unit cell. The crystal structures of five AREP{sub 2}O{sub 7} diphosphates were obtained from Rietveld refinement. Under the excitation of hard X-ray, the Ce{sup 3+}-activated AREP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=Na-Cs; RE=Y, Lu) feature strong Ce{sup 3+} 5d-4f emission with high light yield (1-2 times of that of Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}) and fast decay time within 20-28 ns.« less
  • Monoclinic potassium rare-earth double tungstates [KRE(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}, RE = Y, Lu, Yb; KREW] are well suited as hosts for active lanthanide ion (Ln{sup 3+}) dopants for diode-pumped solid-state lasers, with particular interest in thin-disk laser configurations when they are grown as thin films. Using synchrotron white-beam x-ray topography, we have imaged defects and strain in top-seeded solution-grown (TSSG) bulk substrates of different rare-earth tungstates as well as within Yb{sup 3+}- and Tm{sup 3+}-doped epitaxies for thin-disk laser applications grown on these substrates by liquid-phase epitaxy. Higher structural stress in Yb:KYW/KYW epitaxies compared with Yb:KLuW/KLuW epitaxies is found to lowermore » efficiency in laser operation. The quality of Tm:KLuW/KLuW epitaxial films is sensitive to doping level, film thickness, and growth rate. Inhomogeneous stresses within the layers are dominated by lattice-mismatch effects rather than by crystallographic anisotropy.« less