skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Switching Spectroscopy Piezoresponse Force Microscopy of Ferroelectric Materials

Abstract

The application of ferroelectric materials for electronic devices necessitates the quantitative study of local switching behavior, including imprint, coercive bias, remanent and saturation responses, and work of switching. Here we introduce switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy as a tool for real-space imaging of switching properties on the nanoscale. The hysteresis curves, acquired at each point in the image, are analyzed in the thermodynamic and kinetic limits. We expect that this approach will further understanding of the relationships between material microstructure and polarization switching phenomena on the nanoscale, and provide a quantitative tool for ferroelectric-based device characterization.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
978057
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 88; Journal Issue: 6
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; FERROELECTRIC MATERIALS; HYSTERESIS; KINETICS; MICROSCOPY; MICROSTRUCTURE; POLARIZATION; SATURATION; SPECTROSCOPY; THERMODYNAMICS

Citation Formats

Jesse, Stephen, Baddorf, Arthur P, and Kalinin, Sergei V. Switching Spectroscopy Piezoresponse Force Microscopy of Ferroelectric Materials. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2172216.
Jesse, Stephen, Baddorf, Arthur P, & Kalinin, Sergei V. Switching Spectroscopy Piezoresponse Force Microscopy of Ferroelectric Materials. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2172216.
Jesse, Stephen, Baddorf, Arthur P, and Kalinin, Sergei V. Sun . "Switching Spectroscopy Piezoresponse Force Microscopy of Ferroelectric Materials". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2172216.
@article{osti_978057,
title = {Switching Spectroscopy Piezoresponse Force Microscopy of Ferroelectric Materials},
author = {Jesse, Stephen and Baddorf, Arthur P and Kalinin, Sergei V},
abstractNote = {The application of ferroelectric materials for electronic devices necessitates the quantitative study of local switching behavior, including imprint, coercive bias, remanent and saturation responses, and work of switching. Here we introduce switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy as a tool for real-space imaging of switching properties on the nanoscale. The hysteresis curves, acquired at each point in the image, are analyzed in the thermodynamic and kinetic limits. We expect that this approach will further understanding of the relationships between material microstructure and polarization switching phenomena on the nanoscale, and provide a quantitative tool for ferroelectric-based device characterization.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2172216},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 6,
volume = 88,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • Dynamic switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy is developed to separate thermodynamic and kinetic effects in local bias-induced phase transitions. The approaches for visualization and analysis of 5D data are discussed. The spatial and voltage variability of relaxation behavior of the a-c domain lead zirconate-titanate surface suggest the interpretation in terms of surface charge dynamics. This approach is applicable to local studies of dynamic behavior in any system with reversible bias-induced phase transitions ranging from ferroelectrics and multiferroics to ionic systems such as Li-ion and oxygen-ion conductors in batteries, fuel cells, and electroresistive systems.
  • Polarization switching in polycrystalline PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 films on Pt-coated Si substrates was studied by switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy (SSPFM). Acquisition of multiple hysteresis loops allows polarization switching parameters, including nucleation, coercive biases, and switchable response to be mapped in real space. In contrast to measurements made on the free surface, those on the metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitor structures show the evolution of correlated switching of 102 103 grain clusters with well-defined imprint and nucleation biases. The role of substrate bending on clustering and SSPFM detection mechanisms are discussed. These studies demonstrate real-space imaging of mesoscopic polarization reversal in real-world devices.
  • High-resolution imaging of ferroelectric materials using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is demonstrated in an aqueous environment. The elimination of both long-range electrostatic forces and capillary interactions results in a localization of the ac field to the tip-surface junction and allows the tip-surface contact area to be controlled. This approach results in spatial resolutions approaching the limit of the intrinsic domain-wall width. Imaging at frequencies corresponding to high-order cantilever resonances minimizes the viscous damping and added mass effects on cantilever dynamics and allows sensitivities comparable to ambient conditions. PFM in liquids will provide novel opportunities for high-resolution studies of ferroelectric materials,more » imaging of soft polymer materials, and imaging of biological systems in physiological environments on, ultimately, the molecular level.« less
  • Here we introduce angle-resolved piezoresponse force microscopy (AR-PFM), whereby the sample is rotated by 30{sup o} increments around the surface normal vector and the in-plane PFM phase signals are collected at each angle. We obtained the AR-PFM images of BaTiO{sub 3} single crystal and cube-on-cube epitaxial (001) BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) thin film on SrRuO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} substrate, and confirmed that the AR-PFM provides more unambiguous information on the in-plane polarization directions than the conventional PFM method. Moreover, we found eight additional in-plane polarization variants in epitaxial BFO thin films, which are formed to mitigate highly unstable charged domain boundaries.