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Title: Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant

Abstract

The overall objective of the present work was to develop technologies to reduce freshwater consumption in a cooling tower of coal-based power plant so that one could significantly reduce the need of make-up water. The specific goal was to develop a scale prevention technology based an integrated system of physical water treatment (PWT) and a novel filtration method so that one could reduce the need for the water blowdown, which accounts approximately 30% of water loss in a cooling tower. The present study investigated if a pulsed spark discharge in water could be used to remove deposits from the filter membrane. The test setup included a circulating water loop and a pulsed power system. The present experiments used artificially hardened water with hardness of 1,000 mg/L of CaCO{sub 3} made from a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in order to produce calcium carbonate deposits on the filter membrane. Spark discharge in water was found to produce strong shockwaves in water, and the efficiency of the spark discharge in cleaning filter surface was evaluated by measuring the pressure drop across the filter over time. Results showed that the pressure drop could be reduced tomore » the value corresponding to the initial clean state and after that the filter could be maintained at the initial state almost indefinitely, confirming the validity of the present concept of pulsed spark discharge in water to clean dirty filter. The present study also investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment (PWT) solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counterflow heat exchanger. The self-cleaning filter utilized shockwaves produced by pulse-spark discharges in water to continuously remove scale deposits from the surface of the filter, thus keeping the pressure drop across the filter at a relatively low value. Artificial hard water was used in the present fouling experiments for three different cases: no treatment, PWT coil only, and PWT coil plus self-cleaning filter. Fouling resistances decreased by 59-72% for the combined case of PWT coil plus filter compared with the values for no-treatment cases. SEM photographs showed much smaller particle sizes for the combined case of PWT coil plus filter as larger particles were continuously removed from circulating water by the filter. The x-ray diffraction data showed calcite crystal structures for all three cases.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
977129
DOE Contract Number:  
FC26-06NT42724
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; BLOWDOWN; CALCITE; CALCIUM CARBONATES; CALCIUM CHLORIDES; CLEANING; COOLING TOWERS; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; FILTRATION; FOULING; HARDNESS; HEAT EXCHANGERS; IMAGES; MITIGATION; MIXTURES; PARTICLE SIZE; POWER PLANTS; POWER SYSTEMS; PRESSURE DROP; SODIUM CARBONATES; SOLENOIDS; WATER TREATMENT; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Cho, Young, and Fridman, Alexander. Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.2172/977129.
Cho, Young, & Fridman, Alexander. Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant. United States. doi:10.2172/977129.
Cho, Young, and Fridman, Alexander. Thu . "Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant". United States. doi:10.2172/977129. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/977129.
@article{osti_977129,
title = {Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant},
author = {Cho, Young and Fridman, Alexander},
abstractNote = {The overall objective of the present work was to develop technologies to reduce freshwater consumption in a cooling tower of coal-based power plant so that one could significantly reduce the need of make-up water. The specific goal was to develop a scale prevention technology based an integrated system of physical water treatment (PWT) and a novel filtration method so that one could reduce the need for the water blowdown, which accounts approximately 30% of water loss in a cooling tower. The present study investigated if a pulsed spark discharge in water could be used to remove deposits from the filter membrane. The test setup included a circulating water loop and a pulsed power system. The present experiments used artificially hardened water with hardness of 1,000 mg/L of CaCO{sub 3} made from a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in order to produce calcium carbonate deposits on the filter membrane. Spark discharge in water was found to produce strong shockwaves in water, and the efficiency of the spark discharge in cleaning filter surface was evaluated by measuring the pressure drop across the filter over time. Results showed that the pressure drop could be reduced to the value corresponding to the initial clean state and after that the filter could be maintained at the initial state almost indefinitely, confirming the validity of the present concept of pulsed spark discharge in water to clean dirty filter. The present study also investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment (PWT) solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counterflow heat exchanger. The self-cleaning filter utilized shockwaves produced by pulse-spark discharges in water to continuously remove scale deposits from the surface of the filter, thus keeping the pressure drop across the filter at a relatively low value. Artificial hard water was used in the present fouling experiments for three different cases: no treatment, PWT coil only, and PWT coil plus self-cleaning filter. Fouling resistances decreased by 59-72% for the combined case of PWT coil plus filter compared with the values for no-treatment cases. SEM photographs showed much smaller particle sizes for the combined case of PWT coil plus filter as larger particles were continuously removed from circulating water by the filter. The x-ray diffraction data showed calcite crystal structures for all three cases.},
doi = {10.2172/977129},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2009},
month = {4}
}