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Title: Overview of observations from the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger. Part 2: Radiative fluxes and divergences

Abstract

Broadband shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes observed both at the surface and from space during the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger in 2006 are presented. The surface fluxes were measured by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Mobile Facility (AMF) at Niamey airport, while the fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument on the Meteosat-8 satellite. The data are analyzed as daily averages, in order to minimise sampling differences between the surface and top of atmosphere instruments, while retaining the synoptic and seasonal changes that are the main focus of this study. A cloud mask is used to identify days with cloud from those with predominantly clear skies. The influence of temperature, water vapor, aerosols and clouds is investigated. Aerosols are ubiquitous throughout the year and have a significant impact on both the shortwave and longwave fluxes. The large and systematic seasonal changes in temperature and column integrated water vapor (CWV) through the dry and wet seasons are found to exert strong influences on the longwave fluxes. These influences are often in opposition to each other, because the highest temperatures occur at the end of the dry season when themore » CWV is lowest, while in the wet season the lowest temperatures are associated with the highest values of CWV. Apart from aerosols, the shortwave fluxes are also affected by clouds and by the seasonal changes in CWV. The fluxes are combined to provide estimates of the divergence of radiation across the atmosphere throughout 2006. The longwave divergence is remarkably constant through the year, because of a compensation between the seasonal variations in the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and surface net longwave radiation. A simple model of the greenhouse effect is used to interpret this result in terms of the dependence of the normalized greenhouse effect at the TOA and of the effective emissivity of the atmosphere at the surface on the CWV. It is shown that, as the CWV increases, the atmosphere loses longwave energy to the surface with about the same increasing efficiency with which it traps the OLR, thus keeping the atmospheric longwave divergence roughly constant. The shortwave divergence is mainly determined by the CWV and aerosol loadings and the effect of clouds is much smaller than on the component fluxes.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
974974
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-62130
KP1704010; TRN: US201007%%922
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres), 114:Article Number: D00E04
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 114
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AEROSOLS; CLOUDS; EFFICIENCY; EMISSIVITY; GREENHOUSE EFFECT; RADIATIONS; SAMPLING; SEASONAL VARIATIONS; SEASONS; WATER VAPOR; African Monsoon; ACRF; ARM Mobile Facility

Citation Formats

Slingo, A, White, H E, Bharmal, N, and Robinson, G J. Overview of observations from the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger. Part 2: Radiative fluxes and divergences. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1029/2008JD010497.
Slingo, A, White, H E, Bharmal, N, & Robinson, G J. Overview of observations from the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger. Part 2: Radiative fluxes and divergences. United States. doi:10.1029/2008JD010497.
Slingo, A, White, H E, Bharmal, N, and Robinson, G J. Wed . "Overview of observations from the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger. Part 2: Radiative fluxes and divergences". United States. doi:10.1029/2008JD010497.
@article{osti_974974,
title = {Overview of observations from the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger. Part 2: Radiative fluxes and divergences},
author = {Slingo, A and White, H E and Bharmal, N and Robinson, G J},
abstractNote = {Broadband shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes observed both at the surface and from space during the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger in 2006 are presented. The surface fluxes were measured by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Mobile Facility (AMF) at Niamey airport, while the fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument on the Meteosat-8 satellite. The data are analyzed as daily averages, in order to minimise sampling differences between the surface and top of atmosphere instruments, while retaining the synoptic and seasonal changes that are the main focus of this study. A cloud mask is used to identify days with cloud from those with predominantly clear skies. The influence of temperature, water vapor, aerosols and clouds is investigated. Aerosols are ubiquitous throughout the year and have a significant impact on both the shortwave and longwave fluxes. The large and systematic seasonal changes in temperature and column integrated water vapor (CWV) through the dry and wet seasons are found to exert strong influences on the longwave fluxes. These influences are often in opposition to each other, because the highest temperatures occur at the end of the dry season when the CWV is lowest, while in the wet season the lowest temperatures are associated with the highest values of CWV. Apart from aerosols, the shortwave fluxes are also affected by clouds and by the seasonal changes in CWV. The fluxes are combined to provide estimates of the divergence of radiation across the atmosphere throughout 2006. The longwave divergence is remarkably constant through the year, because of a compensation between the seasonal variations in the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and surface net longwave radiation. A simple model of the greenhouse effect is used to interpret this result in terms of the dependence of the normalized greenhouse effect at the TOA and of the effective emissivity of the atmosphere at the surface on the CWV. It is shown that, as the CWV increases, the atmosphere loses longwave energy to the surface with about the same increasing efficiency with which it traps the OLR, thus keeping the atmospheric longwave divergence roughly constant. The shortwave divergence is mainly determined by the CWV and aerosol loadings and the effect of clouds is much smaller than on the component fluxes.},
doi = {10.1029/2008JD010497},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres), 114:Article Number: D00E04},
number = ,
volume = 114,
place = {United States},
year = {2009},
month = {2}
}