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Title: Discovery of a Supernova Explosion at Half the Age of the Universe and its Cosmological Implications

Abstract

The ultimate fate of the universe, infinite expansion or a big crunch, can be determined by measuring the redshifts, apparent brightnesses, and intrinsic luminosities of very distant supernovae. Recent developments have provided tools that make such a program practicable: (1) Studies of relatively nearby Type la supernovae (SNe la) have shown that their intrinsic luminosities can be accurately determined; (2) New research techniques have made it possible to schedule the discovery and follow-up observations of distant supernovae, producing well over 50 very distant (z = 0.3-0.7) SNe Ia to date. These distant supernovae provide a record of changes in the expansion rate over the past several billion years. By making precise measurements of supernovae at still greater distances, and thus extending this expansion history back far enough in time, we can even distinguish the slowing caused by the gravitational attraction of the universe's mass density {Omega}{sub M} from the effect of a possibly inflationary pressure caused by a cosmological constant {Lambda}. We report here the first such measurements, with our discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN 1997ap) at z = 0.83. Measurements at the Keck II 10-m telescope make this the most distant spectroscopically confirmed supernova. Over two monthsmore » of photometry of SN 1997ap with the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes, when combined with previous measurements of nearer SNe la, suggests that we may live in a low mass-density universe. Further supernovae at comparable distances are currently scheduled for ground and space-based observations.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Physics Division
OSTI Identifier:
974166
Report Number(s):
LBNL-41172
TRN: US201007%%455
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Nature; Journal Volume: 391; Related Information: Journal Publication Date: 1998
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
99; COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT; EXPLOSIONS; PHOTOMETRY; SCHEDULES; SUPERNOVAE; TELESCOPES; UNIVERSE

Citation Formats

Perlmutter, S., Aldering, G., Della Valle, M., Deustua, S., Ellis, R.S., Fabbro, S., Fruchter, A., Goldhaber, G., Goobar, A., Groom, D.E., Hook, I.M., Kim, A.G., Kim, M.Y., Knop, R.A., Lidman, C., McMahon, R.G., Nugent, P., Pain, R., Panagia, N., Pennypacker, C.R., Ruiz-Lapuente, P., Schaefer, B., and Walton, N.. Discovery of a Supernova Explosion at Half the Age of the Universe and its Cosmological Implications. United States: N. p., 1997. Web.
Perlmutter, S., Aldering, G., Della Valle, M., Deustua, S., Ellis, R.S., Fabbro, S., Fruchter, A., Goldhaber, G., Goobar, A., Groom, D.E., Hook, I.M., Kim, A.G., Kim, M.Y., Knop, R.A., Lidman, C., McMahon, R.G., Nugent, P., Pain, R., Panagia, N., Pennypacker, C.R., Ruiz-Lapuente, P., Schaefer, B., & Walton, N.. Discovery of a Supernova Explosion at Half the Age of the Universe and its Cosmological Implications. United States.
Perlmutter, S., Aldering, G., Della Valle, M., Deustua, S., Ellis, R.S., Fabbro, S., Fruchter, A., Goldhaber, G., Goobar, A., Groom, D.E., Hook, I.M., Kim, A.G., Kim, M.Y., Knop, R.A., Lidman, C., McMahon, R.G., Nugent, P., Pain, R., Panagia, N., Pennypacker, C.R., Ruiz-Lapuente, P., Schaefer, B., and Walton, N.. Tue . "Discovery of a Supernova Explosion at Half the Age of the Universe and its Cosmological Implications". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/974166.
@article{osti_974166,
title = {Discovery of a Supernova Explosion at Half the Age of the Universe and its Cosmological Implications},
author = {Perlmutter, S. and Aldering, G. and Della Valle, M. and Deustua, S. and Ellis, R.S. and Fabbro, S. and Fruchter, A. and Goldhaber, G. and Goobar, A. and Groom, D.E. and Hook, I.M. and Kim, A.G. and Kim, M.Y. and Knop, R.A. and Lidman, C. and McMahon, R.G. and Nugent, P. and Pain, R. and Panagia, N. and Pennypacker, C.R. and Ruiz-Lapuente, P. and Schaefer, B. and Walton, N.},
abstractNote = {The ultimate fate of the universe, infinite expansion or a big crunch, can be determined by measuring the redshifts, apparent brightnesses, and intrinsic luminosities of very distant supernovae. Recent developments have provided tools that make such a program practicable: (1) Studies of relatively nearby Type la supernovae (SNe la) have shown that their intrinsic luminosities can be accurately determined; (2) New research techniques have made it possible to schedule the discovery and follow-up observations of distant supernovae, producing well over 50 very distant (z = 0.3-0.7) SNe Ia to date. These distant supernovae provide a record of changes in the expansion rate over the past several billion years. By making precise measurements of supernovae at still greater distances, and thus extending this expansion history back far enough in time, we can even distinguish the slowing caused by the gravitational attraction of the universe's mass density {Omega}{sub M} from the effect of a possibly inflationary pressure caused by a cosmological constant {Lambda}. We report here the first such measurements, with our discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN 1997ap) at z = 0.83. Measurements at the Keck II 10-m telescope make this the most distant spectroscopically confirmed supernova. Over two months of photometry of SN 1997ap with the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes, when combined with previous measurements of nearer SNe la, suggests that we may live in a low mass-density universe. Further supernovae at comparable distances are currently scheduled for ground and space-based observations.},
doi = {},
journal = {Nature},
number = ,
volume = 391,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Dec 16 00:00:00 EST 1997},
month = {Tue Dec 16 00:00:00 EST 1997}
}