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Title: A Brief History of Spectroscopy on EBIT

Abstract

In the autumn of 1986, the first electron beam ion trap, EBIT, was put into service as a light source for the spectroscopy of highly charged ions. On the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of EBIT, we review its early uses for spectroscopy, from the first measurements of x rays from L-shell xenon ions in 1986 to its conversion to SuperEBIT in 1992 and rebirth as EBIT-I in 2001. Together with their sibling, EBIT-II, these machines have been used at Livermore to perform a multitude of seminal studies of the physics of highly charged ions.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
972832
Report Number(s):
UCRL-JRNL-228968
Journal ID: ISSN 0008-4204; CJPHAD; TRN: US1001544
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Physics, vol. 86, no. 1, January 1, 2008, pp. 1-10; Journal Volume: 86; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ELECTRON BEAMS; L SHELL; LIGHT SOURCES; PHYSICS; SPECTROSCOPY; XENON IONS

Citation Formats

Beiersdorfer, P. A Brief History of Spectroscopy on EBIT. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Beiersdorfer, P. A Brief History of Spectroscopy on EBIT. United States.
Beiersdorfer, P. Wed . "A Brief History of Spectroscopy on EBIT". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/972832.
@article{osti_972832,
title = {A Brief History of Spectroscopy on EBIT},
author = {Beiersdorfer, P},
abstractNote = {In the autumn of 1986, the first electron beam ion trap, EBIT, was put into service as a light source for the spectroscopy of highly charged ions. On the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of EBIT, we review its early uses for spectroscopy, from the first measurements of x rays from L-shell xenon ions in 1986 to its conversion to SuperEBIT in 1992 and rebirth as EBIT-I in 2001. Together with their sibling, EBIT-II, these machines have been used at Livermore to perform a multitude of seminal studies of the physics of highly charged ions.},
doi = {},
journal = {Canadian Journal of Physics, vol. 86, no. 1, January 1, 2008, pp. 1-10},
number = 1,
volume = 86,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 28 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Wed Feb 28 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • A number of photo-pumping schemes for x-ray lasers have been studied at the electron beam ion trap. By choosing the electron beam energy, we can select a dominant charge state. Several pair of multicharged ions are good candidates for photo-pumping. {copyright} {ital 1994} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.
  • The EBIT spectroscopy that now seems routine would not be possible without considerable good luck in several areas of EBIT technology. Among these are x-ray background, ion cooling, neutral gas density, and electron current density and energy control. A favourable outcome in these areas has enabled clean x-ray spectra, sufficient intensity for high resolution spectroscopy, production of very high charge states, and a remarkable variety of spectroscopic measurements. During construction of the first EBIT 20 years ago, it was not clear that any of this was possible.
  • After a brief introduction to the NIST EBIT facility, we present the results of three different types of experiments that have been carried out there recently: EUV and visible spectroscopy in support of the microelectronics industry, laboratory astrophysics using an x-ray microcalorimeter, and charge exchange studies using extracted beams of highly charged ions.
  • A number of photo-pumping schemes for x-ray lasers have been studied at the electron beam ion trap. By choosing the electron beam energy, we can select a dominant charge state. Several pair of multicharged ions are good candidates for photo-pumping.
  • The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) is a production-class 36 pixel x-ray calorimeter spectrometer that has been continuously operating at the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for almost 2 years. The ECS was designed to be a long-lifetime, turn-key spectrometer that couples high performance with ease of operation and minimal operator intervention. To this end, a variant of the Suzaku/XRS spaceflight detector system has been coupled to a low-maintenance cryogenic system consisting of a long-lifetime liquid He cryostat, and a closed cycle, {sup 3}He pre-cooled adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The ECS operates for almost 3 weeksmore » between cryogenic servicing and the ADR operates at 0.05 K for more than 60 hours between automatic recycles under software control. Half of the ECS semiconductor detector array is populated with mid-band pixels that have a resolution of 4.5 eV FWHM, a bandpass from 0.05-12 keV, and a quantum efficiency of 95% at 6 keV. The other half of the array has thick HgTe absorbers that have a bandpass from 0.3 to over 100 keV, an energy resolution of 33 eV FWHM, and a quantum efficiency of 32% at 60 keV. In addition, the ECS uses a real-time, autonomous, data collection and analysis system developed for the Suzaku/XRS instrument and implemented in off-the-shelf hardware for the ECS. Here we will discuss the performance of the ECS instrument and its implementation as a turnkey cryogenic detector system.« less