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Title: Vapor-Induced Solid-Liquid-Solid Process for Silicon-based Nanowire Growth

Abstract

Silicon based nanowires have been grown from commercial silicon powders under conditions of differing oxygen and carbon activities. Nanowires grown in the presence of carbon sources consisted of a crystalline SiC core with an amorphous SiOx shell. The thickness of SiOx shell decreased as the oxygen concentration in the precursor gases was lowered. Nanowires grown in a carbon-free environment consisted of amorphous silicon oxide with a typical composition of SiO1.8. The growth rate of nanowires decreased with decreasing oxygen content in the precursor gases. SiO1.8 nanowires exhibited an initial discharge capacity of ~ 1,300 mAh/g and better stability than those of silicon powders. A Vapor Induced Solid-Liquid-Solid (VI-SLS) mechanism is proposed to explain the nanowire growth (including silicon and other metal based nanowires) from powder sources. In this approach, both a gas source and a solid powder source are required for nanowire growth. This mechanism is consistent with experimental observations and can also be used to guide the design and growth of other nanowires.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
972532
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-67705
30490
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources, 195(6 SP ISS):1691-1697
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Power Sources, 195(6 SP ISS):1691-1697
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
nanowire, silicon, lithium ion battery; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Zhang, Jiguang, Liu, Jun, Wang, Donghai, Choi, Daiwon, Fifield, Leonard S., Wang, Chong M., Xia, Guanguang, Nie, Zimin, Yang, Zhenguo, Pederson, Larry R., and Graff, Gordon L. Vapor-Induced Solid-Liquid-Solid Process for Silicon-based Nanowire Growth. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.09.068.
Zhang, Jiguang, Liu, Jun, Wang, Donghai, Choi, Daiwon, Fifield, Leonard S., Wang, Chong M., Xia, Guanguang, Nie, Zimin, Yang, Zhenguo, Pederson, Larry R., & Graff, Gordon L. Vapor-Induced Solid-Liquid-Solid Process for Silicon-based Nanowire Growth. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.09.068.
Zhang, Jiguang, Liu, Jun, Wang, Donghai, Choi, Daiwon, Fifield, Leonard S., Wang, Chong M., Xia, Guanguang, Nie, Zimin, Yang, Zhenguo, Pederson, Larry R., and Graff, Gordon L. Wed . "Vapor-Induced Solid-Liquid-Solid Process for Silicon-based Nanowire Growth". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.09.068.
@article{osti_972532,
title = {Vapor-Induced Solid-Liquid-Solid Process for Silicon-based Nanowire Growth},
author = {Zhang, Jiguang and Liu, Jun and Wang, Donghai and Choi, Daiwon and Fifield, Leonard S. and Wang, Chong M. and Xia, Guanguang and Nie, Zimin and Yang, Zhenguo and Pederson, Larry R. and Graff, Gordon L.},
abstractNote = {Silicon based nanowires have been grown from commercial silicon powders under conditions of differing oxygen and carbon activities. Nanowires grown in the presence of carbon sources consisted of a crystalline SiC core with an amorphous SiOx shell. The thickness of SiOx shell decreased as the oxygen concentration in the precursor gases was lowered. Nanowires grown in a carbon-free environment consisted of amorphous silicon oxide with a typical composition of SiO1.8. The growth rate of nanowires decreased with decreasing oxygen content in the precursor gases. SiO1.8 nanowires exhibited an initial discharge capacity of ~ 1,300 mAh/g and better stability than those of silicon powders. A Vapor Induced Solid-Liquid-Solid (VI-SLS) mechanism is proposed to explain the nanowire growth (including silicon and other metal based nanowires) from powder sources. In this approach, both a gas source and a solid powder source are required for nanowire growth. This mechanism is consistent with experimental observations and can also be used to guide the design and growth of other nanowires.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.09.068},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources, 195(6 SP ISS):1691-1697},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2010},
month = {3}
}