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Title: A University Consortium on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Research

Abstract

Over the course of this four year project, the consortium team members from UM, MIT, Stanford, and Berkeley along with contributors from Sandia National Labs and LLNL, have produced a wide range of results on gasoline HCCI control and implementation. The work spanned a wide range of activities including engine experiments, fundamental chemical kinetics experiments, and an array of analytical modeling techniques and simulations. Throughout the project a collaborative approach has produced a many significant new insights into HCCI engines and their behavior while at the same time we achieved our key consortium goal: to develop workable strategies for gasoline HCCI control and implementation. The major accomplishments in each task are summarized, followed by detailed discussion.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
The Regents Of The University Of Michigan
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
969815
DOE Contract Number:
FC26-01AL67611
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; COMPRESSION; ENGINES; GASOLINE; IGNITION; IMPLEMENTATION; KINETICS; LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY; SIMULATION

Citation Formats

Assanis, Dennis, Atreya, Arvind, Bowman, Craig, Chen, Jyh-Yuan, Cheng, Wai, Davidson, David, Dibble, Robert, Edwards, Chris, Filipi, Zoran, Golden, David, Green, William, Hanson, Ronald, Hedrick, J Karl, Heywood, John, Im, Hong, Lavoie, George, Sick, Volker, and Wooldridge, Margaret. A University Consortium on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Research. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/969815.
Assanis, Dennis, Atreya, Arvind, Bowman, Craig, Chen, Jyh-Yuan, Cheng, Wai, Davidson, David, Dibble, Robert, Edwards, Chris, Filipi, Zoran, Golden, David, Green, William, Hanson, Ronald, Hedrick, J Karl, Heywood, John, Im, Hong, Lavoie, George, Sick, Volker, & Wooldridge, Margaret. A University Consortium on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Research. United States. doi:10.2172/969815.
Assanis, Dennis, Atreya, Arvind, Bowman, Craig, Chen, Jyh-Yuan, Cheng, Wai, Davidson, David, Dibble, Robert, Edwards, Chris, Filipi, Zoran, Golden, David, Green, William, Hanson, Ronald, Hedrick, J Karl, Heywood, John, Im, Hong, Lavoie, George, Sick, Volker, and Wooldridge, Margaret. Sat . "A University Consortium on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Research". United States. doi:10.2172/969815. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/969815.
@article{osti_969815,
title = {A University Consortium on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Research},
author = {Assanis, Dennis and Atreya, Arvind and Bowman, Craig and Chen, Jyh-Yuan and Cheng, Wai and Davidson, David and Dibble, Robert and Edwards, Chris and Filipi, Zoran and Golden, David and Green, William and Hanson, Ronald and Hedrick, J Karl and Heywood, John and Im, Hong and Lavoie, George and Sick, Volker and Wooldridge, Margaret},
abstractNote = {Over the course of this four year project, the consortium team members from UM, MIT, Stanford, and Berkeley along with contributors from Sandia National Labs and LLNL, have produced a wide range of results on gasoline HCCI control and implementation. The work spanned a wide range of activities including engine experiments, fundamental chemical kinetics experiments, and an array of analytical modeling techniques and simulations. Throughout the project a collaborative approach has produced a many significant new insights into HCCI engines and their behavior while at the same time we achieved our key consortium goal: to develop workable strategies for gasoline HCCI control and implementation. The major accomplishments in each task are summarized, followed by detailed discussion.},
doi = {10.2172/969815},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Mar 31 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Sat Mar 31 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiencymore » and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen's significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an analysis of test results indicates that hydrogen enhanced natural gas HCCI (versus neat natural gas HCCI at comparable stoichiometry) had the following characteristics: (1) Substantially lower intake temperature needed for stable HCCI combustion; (2) Inconclusive impact on engine BMEP and power produced; (3) Small reduction in the thermal efficiency of the engine; (4) Moderate reduction in the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust; (5) Slight increase in NOx emissions in the exhaust; (6) Slight reduction in CO2 in the exhaust; and (7) Increased knocking at rich stoichiometry. The major accomplishments and findings from the project can be summarized as follows: (1) A model was calibrated for accurately predicting heat release rate and peak pressures for HCCI combustion when operating on hydrogen and natural gas blends. (2) A single cylinder research engine was thoroughly mapped to compare performance and emissions for micro-pilot natural gas compression ignition, and HCCI combustion for neat natural gas versus blends of natural gas and hydrogen. (3) The benefits of using hydrogen to extend, up to a limit, the stable operating window for HCCI combustion of natural gas at higher intake pressures, leaner air to fuel ratios or lower inlet temperatures was documented.« less
  • The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiencymore » and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen’s significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an analysis of test results indicates that hydrogen enhanced natural gas HCCI (versus neat natural gas HCCI at comparable stoichiometry) had the following characteristics: • Substantially lower intake temperature needed for stable HCCI combustion • Inconclusive impact on engine BMEP and power produced, • Small reduction in the thermal efficiency of the engine, • Moderate reduction in the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust, • Slight increase in NOx emissions in the exhaust, • Slight reduction in CO2 in the exhaust. • Increased knocking at rich stoichiometry The major accomplishments and findings from the project can be summarized as follows: 1. A model was calibrated for accurately predicting heat release rate and peak pressures for HCCI combustion when operating on hydrogen and natural gas blends. 2. A single cylinder research engine was thoroughly mapped to compare performance and emissions for micro-pilot natural gas compression ignition, and HCCI combustion for neat natural gas versus blends of natural gas and hydrogen.« less
  • This report describes the work done at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in two experimental programs. In one program comparisons were made between comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanisms and experimental data for a homogeneous charge engine that was operated in either a spark ignited or compression ignited mode. The aim was to make an assessment of our ability to model the combustion of real fuels in I.C. engines. In the second program the effect of fuel composition on diesel engine performance was evaluated. In particular the effect of the chemical composition of the volatile fraction was examined for its effect on ignitionmore » properties and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine. Two analytics were prepared for this document.« less
  • An experimental and theoretical investigation of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) free piston powered linear alternator has been conducted to determine if improvements can be made in the thermal and conversion efficiencies of modern electrical generator systems. Performance of a free piston engine was investigated using a rapid compression expansion machine and a full cycle thermodynamic model. Linear alternator performance was investigated with a computer model. In addition linear alternator testing and permanent magnet characterization hardware were developed. The development of the two-stroke cycle scavenging process has begun.
  • The operation of piston engines on a compression ignition cycle using a lean, homogeneous charge has many potential attractive features. These include the potential for extremely low NO{sub x} and particulate emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency and not requiring the expensive high pressure injection system of the typical modem diesel engine. Using the HCT chemical kinetics code to simulate autoignition of methane-air mixtures, we have explored the ignition timing, burn duration, NO{sub x} production, indicated efficiency and power output of an engine with a compression ratio of 15:1 at 1200 and 2400 rpm. HCT was modified to include themore » effects of heat transfer. This study used a single control volume reaction zone that varies as a function of crank angle. The ignition process is controlled by varying the intake equivalence ratio and varying the residual gas trapping (RGT). RGT is internal exhaust gas recirculation which recycles both heat and combustion product species. It is accomplished by varying the timing of the exhaust valve closure. Inlet manifold temperature was held constant at 330 Kelvins. Results show that there is a narrow range of operational conditions that show promise of achieving the control necessary to vary power output while keeping indicated efficiency above 50% and NO{sub x} levels below 100 ppm.« less