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Title: Local Polarization Switching Piezoresponse Force Microscopy

Abstract

Piezoresponse Force Spectroscopy (PFS) has emerged as a powerful tool for probing polarization dynamics on the nanoscale. Application of a dc bias to a nanoscale probe in contact with a ferroelectric surface results in the nucleation and growth of a ferroelectric domain below the probe apex. The latter affects local electromechanical response detected by the probe. Resulting hysteresis loop contains information on local ferroelectric switching. The self-consistent analysis of the PFS data requires (a) deriving the thermodynamic parameters of domain nucleation and (b) establishing the relationships between domain parameters and PFM signal. Here, we analyze the early stages of switching processes and the effect of screening on the surface and at the domain wall on local polarization reversal mechanism. It is shown that the screening control both the domain nucleation activation energy and hysteresis loop saturation rate.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
  2. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
965289
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Ferroelectrics; Journal Volume: 354; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; PIEZOELECTRICITY; MICROSCOPY; POLARIZATION; PROBES; SPECTROSCOPY; FERROELECTRIC MATERIALS; DATA ANALYSIS

Citation Formats

Morozovska, A. N., Kalinin, Sergei V, Eliseev, E. A., and Svechnikov, S. V. Local Polarization Switching Piezoresponse Force Microscopy. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1080/00150190701454966.
Morozovska, A. N., Kalinin, Sergei V, Eliseev, E. A., & Svechnikov, S. V. Local Polarization Switching Piezoresponse Force Microscopy. United States. doi:10.1080/00150190701454966.
Morozovska, A. N., Kalinin, Sergei V, Eliseev, E. A., and Svechnikov, S. V. Mon . "Local Polarization Switching Piezoresponse Force Microscopy". United States. doi:10.1080/00150190701454966.
@article{osti_965289,
title = {Local Polarization Switching Piezoresponse Force Microscopy},
author = {Morozovska, A. N. and Kalinin, Sergei V and Eliseev, E. A. and Svechnikov, S. V.},
abstractNote = {Piezoresponse Force Spectroscopy (PFS) has emerged as a powerful tool for probing polarization dynamics on the nanoscale. Application of a dc bias to a nanoscale probe in contact with a ferroelectric surface results in the nucleation and growth of a ferroelectric domain below the probe apex. The latter affects local electromechanical response detected by the probe. Resulting hysteresis loop contains information on local ferroelectric switching. The self-consistent analysis of the PFS data requires (a) deriving the thermodynamic parameters of domain nucleation and (b) establishing the relationships between domain parameters and PFM signal. Here, we analyze the early stages of switching processes and the effect of screening on the surface and at the domain wall on local polarization reversal mechanism. It is shown that the screening control both the domain nucleation activation energy and hysteresis loop saturation rate.},
doi = {10.1080/00150190701454966},
journal = {Ferroelectrics},
number = 1,
volume = 354,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Here, the monoclinic (M) phases in high-performance relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals have been recognized to be a vital structural factor for the outstanding piezoelectric property. However, due to the complexity of the structure in M phases, the understanding about it is still limited. In this paper, the local twin domains and tip-voltage-induced domain switching of the M C phase in Pb(Mg 1/3Nb 2/3)O 3 - 0.34PbTiO 3 (PMN-0.34PT) single crystal have been intensively investigated by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). By theoretically analyzing the experimental patterns of domain walls on the (001) C face, the specific M C twin domains inmore » the initial annealed state of a selected area have been clarified, and the polarization orientation of the M C phase in this sample is determined to be at an angle of 29 degrees to the < 001 > C directions. In addition, based on the evolution of domains and the motion of domain walls under the step-increased PFM tip dc voltage (V dc), the switching process and features of different types of M C domain variants are visually revealed« less
  • Nanoscale polarization switching in ferroelectric materials by piezoresponse force microscopy in weak and strong indentation limits is analyzed using exact solutions for coupled electroelastic fields under the tip. Tip-induced domain switching is mapped on the Landau theory of phase transitions, with domain size as an order parameter. For a point charge interacting with a ferroelectric surface, switching by both first and the second order processes is possible, depending on the charge-surface separation. For a realistic tip, the domain nucleation process is first order in charge magnitude and polarization switching occurs only above a certain critical tip bias. In pure ferroelectricmore » or ferroelastic switching, the late stages of the switching process can be described using a point charge model and arbitrarily large domains can be created. However, description of domain nucleation and the early stages of growth process when the domain size is comparable with the tip curvature radius (weak indentation) or the contact radius (strong indentation) requires the exact field structure. For higher order ferroic switching (e.g., ferroelectroelastic), the domain size is limited by the tip-sample contact area, thus allowing precise control of domain size.« less
  • Thermodynamic description of probe-induced polarization switching in ferroelectrics in the presence of well-localized surface field defects and their effect on local piezoresponse force spectroscopy measurements is analyzed. Corresponding analytical expressions for the free energy, activation energy, nucleation bias, and nucleus sizes are derived. Both numerical calculations and analytical expressions demonstrate that well-localized field defects significantly affect domain nucleation conditions. The signature of the defects in reproducible piezoresponse hysteresis loop fine structure are identified and compared to experimental observations. Deconvolution of piezoresponse force spectroscopy measurements to extract relevant defect parameters is demonstrated. Proposed approach can be extended to switching in othermore » ferroics, establishing a pathway for the understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transitions at a single-defect level.« less
  • The temperature evolution of local polarization properties in epitaxial PbZr{sub 0.65}Ti{sub 0.35}O{sub 3} films is studied by the low-temperature piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). Pronounced changes in the film polarization state, including apparent polarization rotations and possible transitions between single-domain and polydomain states of individual ferroelectric nanocolumns, are revealed on cooling from the room temperature to 8 K using PFM imaging. More than two-fold increase in the coercive voltage extracted from the piezoresponse hysteresis loops is found on cooling from 240 to 8 K. The results are explained by the thermodynamic theory of strained epitaxial perovskite ferroelectric films.