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Title: SmartApps: Middle-ware for Adaptive Applications on Reconfigurable Platforms

Abstract

There are several reasons why the performance of current distributed and heterogeneous systems is often disappointing. For example, the characteristics of the application may be input sensitive and evolve during execution causing dramatic changes in memory reference patterns, resource requirements, or degree of concurrency between different phases of the computation. Or, the system may change dynamically with nodes failing or appearing, some network links severed and other links established with different latencies and bandwidths. Another important reason for poor performance is the fairly compartmentalized approach to optimization: applications, compilers, operating systems and hardware configurations are designed and optimized in isolation and without the knowledge of instance specific information and needs of a running application. There is too little information flow across these boundaries and no global optimization is even attempted. For example, most operating systems services like paging, virtual-to-physical page mapping, I/O, or data layout in disks, provide little or no application customization. Similarly, the off-the-shelf hardware used by most commercial systems is optimized to give best average-case performance. To address this problem, we have proposed application-centric computing, or Smart Applications (SAS). In the SAS executable, the compiler embeds most run-time system services, and a performance-optimizing feedback loop that monitorsmore » the application's performance and adaptively reconfigures the application and the OS/system platform. At run-time, after incorporating the code's input and determining the system's resources and state, the SAS performs an *instance* specific optimization, which is more tractable than a global generic optimization between application, OS and system. The overriding philosophy of SAS is ``measure, compare, and adapt if beneficial.'' That is, the application will continually monitor its performance and the available resources to determine if, and by how much, performance could be improved if the application was restructured. Then, if the potential performance benefit outweighs the projected overhead costs, the application will restructure itself and the underlying system accordingly. The SAS framework includes performance monitoring and modeling components and mechanisms for performing the actual restructuring at various levels including: (i) algorithmic adaptation, (ii) run-time software optimization (e.g., input sensitivity analysis, etc.), (iii) tuning reconfigurable OS services (scheduling policy, page size, etc), and (iv) system configuration (e.g., selecting which, and how many, computational resources to use). SmartApps is being developed in the STAPL infrastructure. STAPL (the Standard Template Adaptive Parallel Library) is a framework for developing highly-optimizable, adaptable, and portable parallel and distributed applications. It consists of a relatively new and still evolving collection of generic parallel algorithms and distributed containers and a run-time system (RTS) through which the application and compiler interact with the OS and hardware.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Texas Engineering Experiment Station
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50)
OSTI Identifier:
963451
Report Number(s):
DOE/ER/25623
TRN: US201006%%687
DOE Contract Number:  
FG02-04ER25623
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; ALGORITHMS; CONFIGURATION; CONTAINERS; FEEDBACK; MONITORING; MONITORS; OPTIMIZATION; PERFORMANCE; SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS; SIMULATION; TUNING; run-time systems, operating systems, parallel

Citation Formats

Lawrence Rauchwerger. SmartApps: Middle-ware for Adaptive Applications on Reconfigurable Platforms. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.2172/963451.
Lawrence Rauchwerger. SmartApps: Middle-ware for Adaptive Applications on Reconfigurable Platforms. United States. doi:10.2172/963451.
Lawrence Rauchwerger. Sun . "SmartApps: Middle-ware for Adaptive Applications on Reconfigurable Platforms". United States. doi:10.2172/963451. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/963451.
@article{osti_963451,
title = {SmartApps: Middle-ware for Adaptive Applications on Reconfigurable Platforms},
author = {Lawrence Rauchwerger},
abstractNote = {There are several reasons why the performance of current distributed and heterogeneous systems is often disappointing. For example, the characteristics of the application may be input sensitive and evolve during execution causing dramatic changes in memory reference patterns, resource requirements, or degree of concurrency between different phases of the computation. Or, the system may change dynamically with nodes failing or appearing, some network links severed and other links established with different latencies and bandwidths. Another important reason for poor performance is the fairly compartmentalized approach to optimization: applications, compilers, operating systems and hardware configurations are designed and optimized in isolation and without the knowledge of instance specific information and needs of a running application. There is too little information flow across these boundaries and no global optimization is even attempted. For example, most operating systems services like paging, virtual-to-physical page mapping, I/O, or data layout in disks, provide little or no application customization. Similarly, the off-the-shelf hardware used by most commercial systems is optimized to give best average-case performance. To address this problem, we have proposed application-centric computing, or Smart Applications (SAS). In the SAS executable, the compiler embeds most run-time system services, and a performance-optimizing feedback loop that monitors the application's performance and adaptively reconfigures the application and the OS/system platform. At run-time, after incorporating the code's input and determining the system's resources and state, the SAS performs an *instance* specific optimization, which is more tractable than a global generic optimization between application, OS and system. The overriding philosophy of SAS is ``measure, compare, and adapt if beneficial.'' That is, the application will continually monitor its performance and the available resources to determine if, and by how much, performance could be improved if the application was restructured. Then, if the potential performance benefit outweighs the projected overhead costs, the application will restructure itself and the underlying system accordingly. The SAS framework includes performance monitoring and modeling components and mechanisms for performing the actual restructuring at various levels including: (i) algorithmic adaptation, (ii) run-time software optimization (e.g., input sensitivity analysis, etc.), (iii) tuning reconfigurable OS services (scheduling policy, page size, etc), and (iv) system configuration (e.g., selecting which, and how many, computational resources to use). SmartApps is being developed in the STAPL infrastructure. STAPL (the Standard Template Adaptive Parallel Library) is a framework for developing highly-optimizable, adaptable, and portable parallel and distributed applications. It consists of a relatively new and still evolving collection of generic parallel algorithms and distributed containers and a run-time system (RTS) through which the application and compiler interact with the OS and hardware.},
doi = {10.2172/963451},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2009},
month = {8}
}