skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Economic Assessment And Impacts Assessment Of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles On Electric Utilities And Regional U.S. Power Grids

Abstract

Part 2 provides an economic assessment of the impacts of PHEV adoption on vehicle owners and on electric utilities. The paper finds favorable impacts on LCC to vehicle owners, and average costs of power for both types of utilities.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
960317
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-53523
TD5016010
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Online Journal of EUEC, 1:Paper #05
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
PHEV; economics; utilities

Citation Formats

Scott, Michael J., Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW, Elliott, Douglas B., and Warwick, William M. Economic Assessment And Impacts Assessment Of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles On Electric Utilities And Regional U.S. Power Grids. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Scott, Michael J., Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW, Elliott, Douglas B., & Warwick, William M. Economic Assessment And Impacts Assessment Of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles On Electric Utilities And Regional U.S. Power Grids. United States.
Scott, Michael J., Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW, Elliott, Douglas B., and Warwick, William M. Mon . "Economic Assessment And Impacts Assessment Of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles On Electric Utilities And Regional U.S. Power Grids". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_960317,
title = {Economic Assessment And Impacts Assessment Of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles On Electric Utilities And Regional U.S. Power Grids},
author = {Scott, Michael J. and Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW and Elliott, Douglas B. and Warwick, William M.},
abstractNote = {Part 2 provides an economic assessment of the impacts of PHEV adoption on vehicle owners and on electric utilities. The paper finds favorable impacts on LCC to vehicle owners, and average costs of power for both types of utilities.},
doi = {},
journal = {Online Journal of EUEC, 1:Paper #05},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 22 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 22 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Part 2 provides an economic assessment of the impacts of PHEV adoption on vehicle owners and on electric utilities. The paper finds favorable impacts on LCC to vehicle owners, and average costs of power for both types of utilities.
  • This initial paper estimates the regional percentages of the energy requirements for the U.S. light duty vehicle stock that could be supported by the existing grid, based on 12 NERC regions. This paper also discusses the impact of overall emissions of criteria gases and greenhouse gases as a result of shifting emission from millions of tailpipes to a relatively few power plants. The paper concludes with an outlook of the technology requirements necessary to manage the additional and potentially sizable new load to maintain grid reliability.
  • PHEVs are expected to penetrate market soon. If recharging occurs during off-peak hours, the grid will not be significantly affected. However, peak-time recharging may lead to capacity shortfalls. This paper analyzes the potential impact of PHEVs on electricity demand, supply, generation structure, prices, and emissions levels in 2020 and 2030 in 13 U.S. regions under 7 recharging scenarios. The simulations predict that the PHEV introduction could impact demand peaks, reduce reserve margins, and increase prices. The type of power generation used to recharge the PHEVs and associated emissions will depend upon the region and the timing of the recharge.
  • Simulations predict that the introduction of PHEVs could impact demand peaks, reduce reserve margins, and increase prices. The type of power generation used to recharge the PHEVs and associated emissions will depend upon the region and the timing of the recharge. (author)
  • Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world, with much work aiming to optimize engine and battery for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, the general expectation has been that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of PHEVs because the recharging will occur during off-peak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough so that capacity planning will respond adequately. This expectation does not consider that drivers will control the timing of recharging, and their inclination will be to plug in when convenient,more » rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of adding load from PHEVs onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require the addition of new electric capacity and increase the utilization of existing capacity. Usage patterns of local distribution grids will change, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to meet the demand for recharging PHEVs will depend on the region of the country and the timing of recharging. This paper analyzes the potential impacts of PHEVs on electricity demand, supply, generation structure, prices, and associated emission levels in 2020 and 2030 in 13 regions specified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), and on which the data and analysis in EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2007 are based (Figure ES-1). The estimates of power plant supplies and regional hourly electricity demand come from publicly available sources from EIA and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Electricity requirements for PHEVs are based on analysis from the Electric Power Research Institute, with an optimistic projection of 25% market penetration by 2020, involving a mixture of sedans and sport utility vehicles. The calculations were done using the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model, a model developed over the past 12 years to evaluate a wide variety of critical electricity sector issues. Seven scenarios were run for each region for 2020 and 2030, for a total of 182 scenarios. In addition to a base scenario of no PHEVs, the authors modeled scenarios assuming that vehicles were either plugged in starting at 5:00 p.m. (evening) or at 10:00 p.m.(night) and left until fully charged. Three charging rates were examined: 120V/15A (1.4 kW), 120V/20A (2 kW), and 220V/30A (6 kW). Most regions will need to build additional capacity or utilize demand response to meet the added demand from PHEVs in the evening charging scenarios, especially by 2030 when PHEVs have a larger share of the installed vehicle base and make a larger demand on the system. The added demands of evening charging, especially at high power levels, can impact the overall demand peaks and reduce the reserve margins for a region's system. Night recharging has little potential to influence peak loads, but will still influence the amount and type of generation.« less