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Title: Microbial Transformations of Plutonium

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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) National Synchrotron Light Source
Sponsoring Org.:
Doe - Office Of Science
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Nuclear and Radiochemical Sciences; Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 2
Country of Publication:
United States
national synchrotron light source

Citation Formats

Francis,A., Dodge, C., and Ohnuki, T. Microbial Transformations of Plutonium. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.14494/jnrs2000.8.121.
Francis,A., Dodge, C., & Ohnuki, T. Microbial Transformations of Plutonium. United States. doi:10.14494/jnrs2000.8.121.
Francis,A., Dodge, C., and Ohnuki, T. Mon . "Microbial Transformations of Plutonium". United States. doi:10.14494/jnrs2000.8.121.
title = {Microbial Transformations of Plutonium},
author = {Francis,A. and Dodge, C. and Ohnuki, T.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.14494/jnrs2000.8.121},
journal = {Journal of Nuclear and Radiochemical Sciences},
number = 2,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
  • Using field-collected periphyton and bacterial isolates, adaptation lag periods were determined for microbial transformation of p-cresol. Lag periods were longer for periphyton samples collected from field sites that were low in dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus. Moreover, lag periods decreased in samples amended with N or P. These data suggest that adaptation lag periods for microbial transformation of low concentrations of chemicals may correlate with limiting nutrient concentrations, and this correlation may provide a basis for predictive mathematical modeling of lag periods.
  • The principal concern about releasing genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) into the environment is their potential adverse effects on the environment, whether caused directly or indirectly by the GEMs. The effects of five GEMs on ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification in soil were studied. With the possible exception of a strain of Enterobacter cloacae carrying a plasmid, no consistent statistically or ecologically significant differences in effects on these processes or on the population dynamics of the microorganisms responsible for the processes were observed between soils inoculated with GEMs or their homologous plasmidless hosts and those that were not inoculated. Increasing the concentrationmore » of montmorillonite in the soil enhanced the rate of nitrification, regardless of the inoculum, indicating that the perfusion technique used was sensitive enough to detect changes in nitrification rates when they occurred.« less
  • Resting cell suspensions of a strain of Corynebacterium isolated from soil formed dimethyl selenide from selenate, selenite, elemental selenium, selenomethionine, selenocystine, and methaneseleninate. Extracts of the bacterium catalyzed the production of dimethyl selenide from selenite, elemental selenium, and methaneseleninate, and methylation of the inorganic Se compounds was enhanced by S-adenosylmethionine. Neither trimethylselenonium nor methaneselenonate was metabolized by the Corynebacterium. Resting cell suspensions of a methionine-utilizing pseudomonad converted selenomethionine to dimethyl diselenide. Six of 10 microorganisms able to grow on cystine used selenocystine as a sole source of carbon and formed elemental selenium, and one of the isolates, a pseudomonad, wasmore » found also to produce selenide. Soil enrichments converted trimethylselenonium to dimethyl selenide. Bacteria capable of utilizing trimethylselenonium, dimethyl selenide, and dimethyl diselenide as carbon sources were isolated from soil. 21 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • Over the past decade, advances in surface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques have provided the opportunity to identify many new microbiologically mediated biogeochemical processes. Although a number of surface spectroscopic techniques require samples to be dehydrated, which precludes real-time measurement of biotransformations and generate solid phase artifacts, some now offer the opportunity to either isolate a hydrated sample within an ultrahigh vacuum during analysis or utilize sources of radiation that efficiently penetrate hydrated specimens. Other nondestructive surface spectroscopic techniques permit determination of the influence of microbiological processes on the kinetics and thermodynamics of geochemical reactions. The ability to perform surface chemical analyses atmore » micrometer and nanometer scales has led to the realization that bacterial cell surfaces are active sites of mineral nucleation and propagation, resulting in the formation of both stable and transient small-scale surface chemical heterogeneities. Some surface spectroscopic instrumentation is now being modified for use in the field to permit researchers to evaluate mineral biotransformations under in situ conditions. Surface spectroscopic techniques are thus offering a variety of opportunities to yield new information on the way in which microorganisms have influenced geochemical processes on Earth over the last 4 billion years.« less