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Title: Assessment of BoneTtissue Mineralization by Conventional X-ray Microcomputed tomography: Comparison with Synchrotron Radiation Microcomputed Tomography and Ash Measurements

Abstract

Assessment of bone tissue mineral density (TMD) may provide information critical to the understanding of mineralization processes and bone biomechanics. High-resolution three-dimensional assessment of TMD has recently been demonstrated using synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography (SR{mu}CT); however, this imaging modality is relatively inaccessible due to the scarcity of SR facilities. Conventional desktop {mu}CT systems are widely available and have been used extensively to assess bone microarchitecture. However, the polychromatic source and cone-shaped beam geometry complicate assessment of TMD by conventional {mu}CT. The goal of this study was to evaluate {mu}CT-based measurement of degree and distribution of tissue mineralization in a quantitative, spatially resolved manner. Specifically, {mu}CT measures of bone mineral content (BMC) and TMD were compared to those obtained by SR{mu}CT and gravimetric methods. Cylinders of trabecular bone were machined from human femoral heads (n=5), vertebrae (n=5), and proximal tibiae (n=4). Cylinders were imaged in saline on a polychromatic {mu}CT system at an isotropic voxel size of 8 {mu}m. Volumes were reconstructed using beam hardening correction algorithms based on hydroxyapatite (HA)-resin wedge phantoms of 200 and 1200 mgHA/cm3. SR{mu}CT imaging was performed at an isotropic voxel size of 7.50 {mu}m at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Attenuation values were converted tomore » HA concentration using a linear regression derived by imaging a calibration phantom. Architecture and mineralization parameters were calculated from the image data. Specimens were processed using gravimetric methods to determine ash mass and density. {mu}CT-based BMC values were not affected by altering the beam hardening correction. Volume-averaged TMD values calculated by the two corrections were significantly different (p=0.008) in high volume fraction specimens only, with the 1200 mgHA/cm3 correction resulting in a 4.7% higher TMD value. {mu}CT and SR{mu}CT provided significantly different measurements of both BMC and TMD (p<0.05). In high volume fraction specimens, {mu}CT with 1200 mgHA/cm3 correction resulted in BMC and TMD values 16.7% and 15.0% lower, respectively, than SR{mu}CT values. In low volume fraction specimens, {mu}CT with 1200 mgHA/cm3 correction resulted in BMC and TMD values 12.8% and 12.9% lower, respectively, than SR{mu}CT values. {mu}CT and SR{mu}CT values were well-correlated when volume fraction groups were considered individually (BMC R2=0.97-1.00; TMD R2=0.78-0.99). Ash mass and density were higher than the SR{mu}CT equivalents by 8.6% in high volume fraction specimens and 10.9% in low volume fraction specimens (p<0.05). BMC values calculated by tomography were highly correlated with ash mass (ash versus {mu}CT R2=0.96-1.00; ash versus SR{mu}CT R2=0.99-1.00). TMD values calculated by tomography were moderately correlated with ash density (ash versus {mu}CT R2=0.64-0.72; ash versus SR{mu}CT R2=0.64). Spatially resolved comparisons highlighted substantial geometric nonuniformity in the {mu}CT data, which were reduced (but not eliminated) using the 1200 mg HA/cm3 beam hardening correction, and did not exist in the SR{mu}CT data. This study represents the first quantitative comparison of {mu}CT mineralization evaluation against SR{mu}CT and gravimetry. Our results indicate that {mu}CT mineralization measures are underestimated but well-correlated with SR{mu}CT and gravimetric data, particularly when volume fraction groups are considered individually.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) National Synchrotron Light Source
Sponsoring Org.:
Doe - Office Of Science
OSTI Identifier:
960044
Report Number(s):
BNL-83030-2009-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0094-2405; MPHYA6; TRN: US1005890
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 35; Journal Issue: 7
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ALGORITHMS; ARCHITECTURE; ATTENUATION; BONE TISSUES; CALIBRATION; DISTRIBUTION; EVALUATION; GEOMETRY; GRAVIMETRY; HARDENING; MINERALIZATION; NSLS; PHANTOMS; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION; TOMOGRAPHY; TRABECULAR BONE; VERTEBRAE; national synchrotron light source

Citation Formats

Kazakia,G., Burghardt, A., Cheung, S., and Majumdar, S. Assessment of BoneTtissue Mineralization by Conventional X-ray Microcomputed tomography: Comparison with Synchrotron Radiation Microcomputed Tomography and Ash Measurements. United States: N. p., 2008. Web. doi:10.1118/1.2924210.
Kazakia,G., Burghardt, A., Cheung, S., & Majumdar, S. Assessment of BoneTtissue Mineralization by Conventional X-ray Microcomputed tomography: Comparison with Synchrotron Radiation Microcomputed Tomography and Ash Measurements. United States. doi:10.1118/1.2924210.
Kazakia,G., Burghardt, A., Cheung, S., and Majumdar, S. Tue . "Assessment of BoneTtissue Mineralization by Conventional X-ray Microcomputed tomography: Comparison with Synchrotron Radiation Microcomputed Tomography and Ash Measurements". United States. doi:10.1118/1.2924210.
@article{osti_960044,
title = {Assessment of BoneTtissue Mineralization by Conventional X-ray Microcomputed tomography: Comparison with Synchrotron Radiation Microcomputed Tomography and Ash Measurements},
author = {Kazakia,G. and Burghardt, A. and Cheung, S. and Majumdar, S.},
abstractNote = {Assessment of bone tissue mineral density (TMD) may provide information critical to the understanding of mineralization processes and bone biomechanics. High-resolution three-dimensional assessment of TMD has recently been demonstrated using synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography (SR{mu}CT); however, this imaging modality is relatively inaccessible due to the scarcity of SR facilities. Conventional desktop {mu}CT systems are widely available and have been used extensively to assess bone microarchitecture. However, the polychromatic source and cone-shaped beam geometry complicate assessment of TMD by conventional {mu}CT. The goal of this study was to evaluate {mu}CT-based measurement of degree and distribution of tissue mineralization in a quantitative, spatially resolved manner. Specifically, {mu}CT measures of bone mineral content (BMC) and TMD were compared to those obtained by SR{mu}CT and gravimetric methods. Cylinders of trabecular bone were machined from human femoral heads (n=5), vertebrae (n=5), and proximal tibiae (n=4). Cylinders were imaged in saline on a polychromatic {mu}CT system at an isotropic voxel size of 8 {mu}m. Volumes were reconstructed using beam hardening correction algorithms based on hydroxyapatite (HA)-resin wedge phantoms of 200 and 1200 mgHA/cm3. SR{mu}CT imaging was performed at an isotropic voxel size of 7.50 {mu}m at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Attenuation values were converted to HA concentration using a linear regression derived by imaging a calibration phantom. Architecture and mineralization parameters were calculated from the image data. Specimens were processed using gravimetric methods to determine ash mass and density. {mu}CT-based BMC values were not affected by altering the beam hardening correction. Volume-averaged TMD values calculated by the two corrections were significantly different (p=0.008) in high volume fraction specimens only, with the 1200 mgHA/cm3 correction resulting in a 4.7% higher TMD value. {mu}CT and SR{mu}CT provided significantly different measurements of both BMC and TMD (p<0.05). In high volume fraction specimens, {mu}CT with 1200 mgHA/cm3 correction resulted in BMC and TMD values 16.7% and 15.0% lower, respectively, than SR{mu}CT values. In low volume fraction specimens, {mu}CT with 1200 mgHA/cm3 correction resulted in BMC and TMD values 12.8% and 12.9% lower, respectively, than SR{mu}CT values. {mu}CT and SR{mu}CT values were well-correlated when volume fraction groups were considered individually (BMC R2=0.97-1.00; TMD R2=0.78-0.99). Ash mass and density were higher than the SR{mu}CT equivalents by 8.6% in high volume fraction specimens and 10.9% in low volume fraction specimens (p<0.05). BMC values calculated by tomography were highly correlated with ash mass (ash versus {mu}CT R2=0.96-1.00; ash versus SR{mu}CT R2=0.99-1.00). TMD values calculated by tomography were moderately correlated with ash density (ash versus {mu}CT R2=0.64-0.72; ash versus SR{mu}CT R2=0.64). Spatially resolved comparisons highlighted substantial geometric nonuniformity in the {mu}CT data, which were reduced (but not eliminated) using the 1200 mg HA/cm3 beam hardening correction, and did not exist in the SR{mu}CT data. This study represents the first quantitative comparison of {mu}CT mineralization evaluation against SR{mu}CT and gravimetry. Our results indicate that {mu}CT mineralization measures are underestimated but well-correlated with SR{mu}CT and gravimetric data, particularly when volume fraction groups are considered individually.},
doi = {10.1118/1.2924210},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 7,
volume = 35,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2008},
month = {Tue Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2008}
}