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Title: Chemical Kinetic and Molecular Genetic Study of Selenium Oxyanion Reduction by Enterobactor cloacae SLD1a-1

Abstract

Microbial processes play an important role in the redox transformations of toxic selenium oxyanions. In this study, we employed chemical kinetic and molecular genetic techniques to investigate the mechanisms of Se(IV) and Se(VI) reduction by the facultative anaerobe Enterobacter cloacae SLD1a-1. The rates of microbial selenium oxyanion reduction were measured as a function of initial selenium oxyanion concentration (0-1.0 mM) and temperature (10-40 C), and mutagenesis studies were performed to identify the genes involved in the selenium oxyanion reduction pathway. The results indicate that Se(IV) reduction is significantly more rapid than the reduction of Se(VI). The kinetics of the reduction reactions were successfully quantified using the Michaelis-Menten kinetic equation. Both the rates of Se(VI) and Se(IV) reduction displayed strong temperature-dependence with Ea values of 121 and 71.2 kJ/mol, respectively. X-ray absorption near-edge spectra collected for the precipitates formed by Se(VI) and Se(IV) reduction confirmed the formation of Se(0). A miniTn5 transposon mutant of E. cloacae SLD1a-1 was isolated that had lost the ability to reduce Se(VI) but was not affected in Se(IV) reduction activity. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the transposon was inserted within a tatC gene, which encodes for a central protein in the twin arginine translocation system. Complementation bymore » the wild-type tatC sequence restored the ability of mutant strains to reduce Se(VI). The results suggest that Se(VI) reduction activity is dependent on enzyme export across the cytoplasmic membrane and that reduction of Se(VI) and Se(IV) are catalyzed by different enzymatic systems.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Doe - Office Of Science
OSTI Identifier:
959793
Report Number(s):
BNL-82779-2009-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0013-936X; ESTHAG; TRN: US201016%%937
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Science and Technology; Journal Volume: 41
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS//MATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND INFORMATION SCIENCE; ABSORPTION; ARGININE; ENZYMES; EXPORTS; GENES; GENETICS; KINETIC EQUATIONS; KINETICS; MEMBRANES; MUTAGENESIS; MUTANTS; NUCLEOTIDES; PROTEINS; SELENIUM; STRAINS; STRUCTURAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; TRANSLOCATION; TRANSPOSONS

Citation Formats

Ma,J., Kobayashi, D., and Yee, N. Chemical Kinetic and Molecular Genetic Study of Selenium Oxyanion Reduction by Enterobactor cloacae SLD1a-1. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1021/es0712672.
Ma,J., Kobayashi, D., & Yee, N. Chemical Kinetic and Molecular Genetic Study of Selenium Oxyanion Reduction by Enterobactor cloacae SLD1a-1. United States. doi:10.1021/es0712672.
Ma,J., Kobayashi, D., and Yee, N. Mon . "Chemical Kinetic and Molecular Genetic Study of Selenium Oxyanion Reduction by Enterobactor cloacae SLD1a-1". United States. doi:10.1021/es0712672.
@article{osti_959793,
title = {Chemical Kinetic and Molecular Genetic Study of Selenium Oxyanion Reduction by Enterobactor cloacae SLD1a-1},
author = {Ma,J. and Kobayashi, D. and Yee, N.},
abstractNote = {Microbial processes play an important role in the redox transformations of toxic selenium oxyanions. In this study, we employed chemical kinetic and molecular genetic techniques to investigate the mechanisms of Se(IV) and Se(VI) reduction by the facultative anaerobe Enterobacter cloacae SLD1a-1. The rates of microbial selenium oxyanion reduction were measured as a function of initial selenium oxyanion concentration (0-1.0 mM) and temperature (10-40 C), and mutagenesis studies were performed to identify the genes involved in the selenium oxyanion reduction pathway. The results indicate that Se(IV) reduction is significantly more rapid than the reduction of Se(VI). The kinetics of the reduction reactions were successfully quantified using the Michaelis-Menten kinetic equation. Both the rates of Se(VI) and Se(IV) reduction displayed strong temperature-dependence with Ea values of 121 and 71.2 kJ/mol, respectively. X-ray absorption near-edge spectra collected for the precipitates formed by Se(VI) and Se(IV) reduction confirmed the formation of Se(0). A miniTn5 transposon mutant of E. cloacae SLD1a-1 was isolated that had lost the ability to reduce Se(VI) but was not affected in Se(IV) reduction activity. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the transposon was inserted within a tatC gene, which encodes for a central protein in the twin arginine translocation system. Complementation by the wild-type tatC sequence restored the ability of mutant strains to reduce Se(VI). The results suggest that Se(VI) reduction activity is dependent on enzyme export across the cytoplasmic membrane and that reduction of Se(VI) and Se(IV) are catalyzed by different enzymatic systems.},
doi = {10.1021/es0712672},
journal = {Environmental Science and Technology},
number = ,
volume = 41,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • The facultative anaerobic bacterium Enterobacter cloacae strain SLD1a-1 was studied in washed cell suspensions to assess optimal conditions required for the reduction of selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) to elemental selenium (Se{sup 0}). Enterobacter cloacae using glucose (1.4 mM) as an electron donor removed 79% of the added SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} from solution in 2.5 h. Optimal SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} reduction occurred at a pH of 6.5 and a temperature of 40 C. Carbohydrate sources arabinose, xylose, and sorbose were found to significantly enhance SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} reduction over that of glucose. The reduction of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} at 7.9 {micro}Mmore » was inhibited by nitrate of levels 1 to 100 times greater, nitrite at levels 5 and 10 times greater, while sulfite at levels of two to four times greater was found to stimulate the reduction of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}. Enterobacter cloacae grows on anaerobically incubated plates containing NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} as the sole terminal electron acceptor and acetate as the electron donor. Use of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} as the terminal electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration did not support growth and could only be reduced to Se{sup 0} when NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} was present.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • Selenium stable isotope ratio measurements should serve as indicators of sources and biogeochemical transformations of Se. The authors report measurements of Se isotope fractionation during selenate reduction, selenite sorption, oxidation of reduced Se in soils, and Se volatilization by algae and soil samples. These results, combined with previous work with Se isotopes, indicate that reduction of soluble oxyanions is the dominant cause of Se isotope fractionation. Accordingly, Se isotope ratios should be useful as indicators of oxyanion reduction, which can transform mobile species to forms that are less mobile and less bioavailable. Additional investigations of Se isotope fractionation are neededmore » to confirm this preliminary assessment. The authors have developed a new method for measurement of natural Se isotope ratio variation which requires less than 500 ng Se per analysis and yields {+-}0.2% precision on {sup 80}Se/{sup 76}Se. A double isotope spike technique corrects for isotopic fractionation during sample preparation and mass spectrometry. The small minimum sample size is important, as Se concentrations are often below 1 ppm in solids and 1 {micro}g/L in fluids. The Se purification process is rapid and compatible with various sample matrices, including acidic rock or sediment digests.« less
  • The fate of selenium in the environment is controlled, in part, by microbial selenium oxyanion reduction and Se(0) precipitation. In this study, we identified a genetic regulator that controls selenate reductase activity in the Se-reducing bacterium Enterobacter cloacae SLD1a-1. Heterologous expression of the global anaerobic regulatory gene fnr (fumarate nitrate reduction regulator) from E. cloacae in the non-Se-reducing strain Escherichia coli S17-1 activated the ability to reduce Se(VI) and precipitate insoluble Se(0) particles. Se(VI) reduction by E. coli S17-1 containing the fnr gene occurred at rates similar to those for E. cloacae, with first-order reaction constants of k = 2.07more » x 10{sup -2} h{sup -1} and k = 3.36 x 10{sup -2} h{sup -1}, respectively, and produced elemental selenium particles with identical morphologies and short-range atomic orders. Mutation of the fnr gene in E. cloacae SLD1a-1 resulted in derivative strains that were deficient in selenate reductase activity and unable to precipitate elemental selenium. Complementation by the wild-type fnr sequence restored the ability of mutant strains to reduce Se(VI). Our findings suggest that Se(VI) reduction and the precipitation of Se(0) by facultative anaerobes are regulated by oxygen-sensing transcription factors and occur under suboxic conditions.« less
  • Kinetics of bacterial reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium (chromate: CrO[sub 4][sup [minus]2]) was investigated using batch and fed-batch cultures of Enterobacter cloacae strain HO1. In fed-batch cultures, the CrO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] feed was controlled on the basis of the rate of pH change. This control strategy has proven to be useful for avoiding toxic CrO[sub 3][sup [minus]2] overload. A simple mathematical model was developed to describe the bacterial process of CrO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] reduction. In this model, two types of bacterial cells were considered: induced, CrO[sub 4][sup [minus]2]-resistant cells and uninduced, sensitive ones. Only resistant cells were assumed to bemore » able to reduce CrO[sub 4][sup [minus]2]. These fundamental ideas were supported by the model predictions which well approximated all experimental data. In a simulation study, the model was also used to optimize fed-batch cultures, instead of lengthy and expensive laboratory experiments.« less