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Title: Effect of lead on passivation of alloy 600 surface.


No abstract prepared.

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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
TRN: US201007%%108
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Resource Relation:
Conference: 9th International Symposium on the Passivation of Metals and Semiconductors, and the Properties of Thin Oxide Layers; Jun. 17, 2005 - Jul. 1, 2005; Paris, France
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Zhou, Z., Park, J., Indacochea, J. E., Staehle, R. W., Hwang, S., Finnegan, N., Haasch, R., Energy Technology, Univ. of Illinois, Univ. of Minnesota, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. Effect of lead on passivation of alloy 600 surface.. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Zhou, Z., Park, J., Indacochea, J. E., Staehle, R. W., Hwang, S., Finnegan, N., Haasch, R., Energy Technology, Univ. of Illinois, Univ. of Minnesota, & Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. Effect of lead on passivation of alloy 600 surface.. United States.
Zhou, Z., Park, J., Indacochea, J. E., Staehle, R. W., Hwang, S., Finnegan, N., Haasch, R., Energy Technology, Univ. of Illinois, Univ. of Minnesota, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. Mon . "Effect of lead on passivation of alloy 600 surface.". United States. doi:.
title = {Effect of lead on passivation of alloy 600 surface.},
author = {Zhou, Z. and Park, J. and Indacochea, J. E. and Staehle, R. W. and Hwang, S. and Finnegan, N. and Haasch, R. and Energy Technology and Univ. of Illinois and Univ. of Minnesota and Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.},
abstractNote = {No abstract prepared.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}

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  • The effect of zinc addition to the primary water on Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) susceptibility and crack growth rate of mill annealed Alloy 600 (600MA), covered with oxide film which were formed beforehand in the simulated PWR primary chemistry for long time, were examined in the chemistry at 360 C, using Slow Strain Rate Technique (SSRT) and Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests. In order to clarify the effect of zinc addition on the characteristics of the oxide films formed on Alloy 600MA, chemical compositions and the film structures were also examined using Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-Ray Photoelectronmore » Spectroscopy (XPS), and X-Ray Diffractiometry (XRD) techniques. The SSRT tests results showed that the 10 ppb zinc addition to the chemistry reduced the PWSCC susceptibility of the prefilmed Alloy 600MA. And the DCB tests results showed that the PWSCC crack growth rate of prefilmed Alloy 600MA was reduced to 1/10 by the 10 ppb zinc addition to the chemistry. AES, XPS and XRD studies showed that even though a double layered prefilm, i.e., the outer layer composed of nickel ferrite and the inner one composed of nichromite, was formed on alloy 600MA, the outer inverse spinel oxide was diminished and then the oxide film was thinned by the addition of 10ppb zinc in the chemistry. Zinc was incorporated into the inner spinel oxide of nichromite, and the good relationship was observed between PWSCC susceptibility and chromium content in the oxide. Based on the above observations, it was concluded that zinc addition to the simulated PWR primary coolant enhanced the formation of stable oxide film composed zinc-chromium phase, and then increased PWSCC resistance of alloy 600MA.« less
  • The effects of the valence of sulfur in sulfur oxyanions on the passivation behavior of Alloys 600 and 690 in various heat treatments was studied at 25 C and 95 C using the potentiodynamic polarization method; the effects of scanning rate of the potential, valence of sulfur oxyanions, pH, alloy composition and alloy heat treatment were investigated. In general, the stability of passive films was found to decrease with the decrease of sulfur valence from +6 to {minus}2. Alloy 690 in the thermally treated condition tended to be more stable that the various heat treatments of Alloy 600. Examination ofmore » surfaces after polarization over the potential range showed that intergranular corrosion occurred mainly in solutions of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, S{sub 4}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} and S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} whereas S{sup 2{minus}} produced pitting. The increase of S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} at pH 6 and 95 C accelerates anodic dissolution. The variation of pH from 3.5 to 8 in 10{sup {minus}2} M S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} solutions does not change the anodic current density significantly. The transient instability of protective films was assessed by taking the ratio, R{sub SR}, of the current density from a rapid scan at 20 mV/s to a slow scan at 0.2 m V/s. These ratios were determined as a function of potential for the variables studied; in some cases ratios as high as 200 were observed.« less
  • Lead is one of the potential contributing impurities to the degradation of PWR steam generator tubing. Recent laboratory testing has shown that lead is a corrosive material for Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. However, it is still unknown how lead influences the corrosion of steam generator tubing, including the effect of lead concentration, solution pH, stress level and material characteristics. In this study, two kinds of experiments were performed. One was to investigate the thin film characteristic and selectively dissolved base metal elements of Alloy 600MA in high temperature solutions of different lead concentrations and pH. The other investigated themore » dependency of degradation of Alloy 600MA and Alloy 690TT on lead concentration and stress level in mild acidic environment, at 340{degrees}C for 2500 hrs. It was firstly demonstrated that lead-enhanced selective dissolution of nickel from alloy base metal, as a result of electrochemical reaction between lead and nickel, might cause the initiation and propagation of corrosion. Secondly, we showed that Alloy 690TT, generally very corrosion resistant material, also suffered from Pb-induced corrosion. The difference of the lead-induced stress corrosion morphology of Alloy 600MA and Alloy 690TT was also clarified.« less
  • The surface composition of oxides formed on Alloy 600 under conditions similar to those in the primary side of PWR heat exchangers has been studied as a function of potential using Rutherford backscattering and proton inelastic scattering. Electropolished samples of Alloy 600 were exposed at several potentials to a solution of 0.18M H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/(2000 ppM B) with 0.28M LiOH (1.4 ppM Li) at 300/sup 0/C for 450 hours. The potentials relative to an internal hydrogen electrode ranged from -.09 to 750 mV. RBS analysis showed little or no oxide formation on samples exposed at 0 mV. Above 0 mVmore » oxide layers formed whose thicknesses increased with potential. In addition the RBS showed a significantly enhanced concentration of aluminum and silicon in oxide. Both the oxygen and the sum of the aluminum and silicon content appeared to maintain a fixed surface concentration independent of the oxide thickness. Boron and lithium concentration were analyzed with proton inelastic scattering. No lithium was found in any sample. The boron concentration was found to follow the thickness of the oxide.« less
  • We have investigated whether an in-situ hydrogen or ammonia rf-plasma treatment prior to a PECVD-nitride deposition would promote bulk defect passivation independently of surface effects. We also studied whether the predeposition of a thin silicon-nitride protective layer vbefore performing the plasma treatment would serve to minimize surface damage. We found that for the limited set of deposition conditions in of cells processed using the used five different deposition strategies and compared the resulting cell performance with that investigated so far, the direct deposition of PECVD-nitride produces the best cells on String Ribbon silicon wafers to date, with efficiencies up tomore » 14.5%. Hydrogen and ammonia plasma pretreatments without a protective nitride layer resulted in better bulk passivation, but damaged surfaces. Pretreatments after deposition of the protective layer produced the best surface passivation, but were not effective in passivating the bulk.« less