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Title: Nanomaterials-Enhanced Electrically Switched Ion Exchange Process for Water Treatment

Abstract

The objective of our work is to develop an electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) system based on conducting polymer/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites as a new and cost-effective approach for removal of radioactive cesium, chromate, and perchlorate from contaminated groundwater. The ESIX technology combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for the removal of target species from wastewater. In this technique, an electroactive ion exchange layer is deposited on a conducting substrate, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulation of the potential of the layer. ESIX offers the advantages of highly-efficient use of electrical energy combined with no secondary waste generation. Recently, we have improved upon the ESIX process by modifying the conducting substrate with carbon nanotubes prior to the deposition of the electroactive ion exchanger. The nanomaterial-based electroactive ion exchange technology will remove cesium-137, chromate, and perchlorate rapidly from wastewater. The high porosity and high surface area of the electroactive ion exchange nanocomposites results in high loading capacity and minimize interferences for non-target species. Since the ion adsorption/desorption is controlled electrically without generating a secondary waste, this electrically active ion exchange process is a green process technology that will greatly reduce operating costs.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
951854
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-59140
24822; 400403209; TRN: US0902302
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Book
Resource Relation:
Related Information: Nanotechnology Applications for Clean Water, 179-189
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; WATER TREATMENT; ION EXCHANGE; CARBON; NANOTUBES; CESIUM 137; CHROMATES; PERCHLORATES; REMOVAL; GROUND WATER; ELECTROCHEMISTRY; ADSORPTION; DESORPTION; nanotechnology; water treatment; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Lin, Yuehe, Choi, Daiwon, Wang, Jun, and Bontha, Jagannadha R. Nanomaterials-Enhanced Electrically Switched Ion Exchange Process for Water Treatment. United States: N. p., 2009. Web.
Lin, Yuehe, Choi, Daiwon, Wang, Jun, & Bontha, Jagannadha R. Nanomaterials-Enhanced Electrically Switched Ion Exchange Process for Water Treatment. United States.
Lin, Yuehe, Choi, Daiwon, Wang, Jun, and Bontha, Jagannadha R. 2009. "Nanomaterials-Enhanced Electrically Switched Ion Exchange Process for Water Treatment". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_951854,
title = {Nanomaterials-Enhanced Electrically Switched Ion Exchange Process for Water Treatment},
author = {Lin, Yuehe and Choi, Daiwon and Wang, Jun and Bontha, Jagannadha R.},
abstractNote = {The objective of our work is to develop an electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) system based on conducting polymer/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites as a new and cost-effective approach for removal of radioactive cesium, chromate, and perchlorate from contaminated groundwater. The ESIX technology combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for the removal of target species from wastewater. In this technique, an electroactive ion exchange layer is deposited on a conducting substrate, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulation of the potential of the layer. ESIX offers the advantages of highly-efficient use of electrical energy combined with no secondary waste generation. Recently, we have improved upon the ESIX process by modifying the conducting substrate with carbon nanotubes prior to the deposition of the electroactive ion exchanger. The nanomaterial-based electroactive ion exchange technology will remove cesium-137, chromate, and perchlorate rapidly from wastewater. The high porosity and high surface area of the electroactive ion exchange nanocomposites results in high loading capacity and minimize interferences for non-target species. Since the ion adsorption/desorption is controlled electrically without generating a secondary waste, this electrically active ion exchange process is a green process technology that will greatly reduce operating costs.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2009,
month = 1
}

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  • Electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) can be used to separate ionic contaminants from industrial wastewater, including that generated by the nuclear industry. The ESIX method involves sequential application of reduction and oxidation potentials to an ion exchange film to induce the respective loading and unloading of cesium. This technology is superior to conventional methods (e.g electrodialysis reversal or reverse osmosis) as it requires very little energy for ionic separation. In previous studies, ESIX films have demonstrated relatively low ion exchange capacities and limited film stabilities over repeated potential applications. In this study, the methodology for the deposition of electro-active filmsmore » (nickel hexacyanoferrate) on nickel electrodes was modified to improve the ion exchange capacity for cesium removal using ESIX. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the ion exchange capacity and stability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the modified film surfaces. Additionally, the films were examined for the separation of cesium ions. This modified film preparation technique enhanced the ion exchange capacity and improves the film stability compared to previous methods for the deposition of ESIX films. (authors)« less
  • The electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) process, being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, provides an alternative separation method to selectively remove ions from process and waste streams. In the ESIX process, in which an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto a high surface area electrode, uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the electrochemical potential of the film. This paper addresses engineering issues necessary to fully develop ESIX for specific industrial alkali cation separation challenges. The cycling and chemical stability and alkali cation selectivity of nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) electroactive films were investigated. The selectivity of NiHCF wasmore » determined using cyclic voltammetry and a quartz crystal microbalance to quantify ion uptake in the film. Separation factors indicated a high selectivity for cesium and a moderate selectivity for potassium in high sodium content solutions. A NiHCF film with improved redox cycling and chemical stability in a simulated pulp mill process stream, a targeted application for ESIX, was also prepared and tested.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • Industrial Waste Treatment Process Engineering is a step-by-step implementation manual in three volumes, detailing the selection and design of industrial liquid and solid waste treatment systems. It consolidates all the process engineering principles required to evaluate a wide range of industrial facilities, starting with pollution prevention and source control and ending with end-of-pipe treatment technologies. This three-volume set is a practical guide for environmental engineers with process implementation responsibilities; a one-stop resource for process engineering requirements--from plant planning to implementing specific treatment technologies for unit operations; a comprehensive reference for industrial waste treatment technologies; and includes calculations and worked problemsmore » based on industry cases. The contents of Volume 3 include: industrial and hazardous waste incineration; adsorption; ion exchange; wastewater stripping; filtration; membrane technology; and dewatering.« less