skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Mixed Ionic and Electonic Conductors for Hydrogen Generation and Separation: A New Approach

Abstract

Composite mixed conductors comprising one electronic conducting phase, and one ionic conducting phase (MIECs) have been developed in this work. Such MIECs have applications in generating and separating hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels at high process rates and high purities. The ionic conducting phase comprises of rare-earth doped ceria and the electronic conducting phase of rare-earth doped strontium titanate. These compositions are ideally suited for the hydrogen separation application. In the process studied in this project, steam at high temperatures is fed to one side of the MIEC membrane and hydrocarbon fuel or reformed hydrocarbon fuel to the other side of the membrane. Oxygen is transported from the steam side to the fuel side down the electrochemical potential gradient thereby enriching the steam side flow in hydrogen. The remnant water vapor can then be condensed to obtain high purity hydrogen. In this work we have shown that two-phase MIECs comprising rare-earth ceria as the ionic conductor and doped-strontium titanate as the electronic conductor are stable in the operating environment of the MIEC. Further, no adverse reaction products are formed when these phases are in contact at elevated temperatures. The composite MIECs have been characterized using a transient electrical conductivity relaxation techniquemore » to measure the oxygen chemical diffusivity and the surface exchange coefficient. Oxygen permeation and hydrogen generation rates have been measured under a range of process conditions and the results have been fit to a model which incorporates the oxygen chemical diffusivity and the surface exchange coefficient from the transient measurements.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Trustees Of Boston University
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
949960
DOE Contract Number:
FC26-03NT41958
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
08 HYDROGEN; ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY; HYDROCARBONS; HYDROGEN; MEMBRANES; OXYGEN; RELAXATION; STEAM; STRONTIUM TITANATES; TITANATES; TRANSIENTS; WATER VAPOR

Citation Formats

Srikanth Gopalan. Mixed Ionic and Electonic Conductors for Hydrogen Generation and Separation: A New Approach. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.2172/949960.
Srikanth Gopalan. Mixed Ionic and Electonic Conductors for Hydrogen Generation and Separation: A New Approach. United States. doi:10.2172/949960.
Srikanth Gopalan. Sun . "Mixed Ionic and Electonic Conductors for Hydrogen Generation and Separation: A New Approach". United States. doi:10.2172/949960. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/949960.
@article{osti_949960,
title = {Mixed Ionic and Electonic Conductors for Hydrogen Generation and Separation: A New Approach},
author = {Srikanth Gopalan},
abstractNote = {Composite mixed conductors comprising one electronic conducting phase, and one ionic conducting phase (MIECs) have been developed in this work. Such MIECs have applications in generating and separating hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels at high process rates and high purities. The ionic conducting phase comprises of rare-earth doped ceria and the electronic conducting phase of rare-earth doped strontium titanate. These compositions are ideally suited for the hydrogen separation application. In the process studied in this project, steam at high temperatures is fed to one side of the MIEC membrane and hydrocarbon fuel or reformed hydrocarbon fuel to the other side of the membrane. Oxygen is transported from the steam side to the fuel side down the electrochemical potential gradient thereby enriching the steam side flow in hydrogen. The remnant water vapor can then be condensed to obtain high purity hydrogen. In this work we have shown that two-phase MIECs comprising rare-earth ceria as the ionic conductor and doped-strontium titanate as the electronic conductor are stable in the operating environment of the MIEC. Further, no adverse reaction products are formed when these phases are in contact at elevated temperatures. The composite MIECs have been characterized using a transient electrical conductivity relaxation technique to measure the oxygen chemical diffusivity and the surface exchange coefficient. Oxygen permeation and hydrogen generation rates have been measured under a range of process conditions and the results have been fit to a model which incorporates the oxygen chemical diffusivity and the surface exchange coefficient from the transient measurements.},
doi = {10.2172/949960},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share:
  • A mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane includes a two-phase solid state ceramic composite, wherein the first phase comprises an oxygen ion conductor and the second phase comprises an n-type electronically conductive oxide, wherein the electronically conductive oxide is stable at an oxygen partial pressure as low as 10.sup.-20 atm and has an electronic conductivity of at least 1 S/cm. A hydrogen separation system and related methods using the mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane are described.
  • The performance of many energy conversion and storage devices depend on the properties of mixed ionic-electronic conducting (miec) materials. Mixed or ambipolar conductors simultaneously transport ions and electrons and provide the critical interface between chemical and electrical energy in devices such as fuel cells, ion transport membranes, and batteries. Enhancements in storage capacity, reversibility, power density and device lifetime all require new materials and a better understanding of the fundamentals of ambipolar conductivity and surface reactivity.The high temperature properties of the ordered perovksites AA’B 2O 5+x, where A = rare earth ion, Y and B = Ba, Sr were studied.more » The work was motivated by the high oxygen transport and surface exchange rates observed for members of this class of mixed ionic and electronic conductors. A combined experimental and computational approach, including structural, electrochemical, and transport characterization and modeling was used. The approach attacks the problem simultaneously at global (e.g., neutron diffraction and impedance spectroscopy), local (e.g., pair distribution function, nuclear magnetic resonance) and molecular (ab initio thermokinetic modeling) length scales. The objectives of the work were to understand how the cation and associated anion order lead to exceptional ionic and electronic transport properties and surface reactivity in AA’B2O5+x perovskites. A variety of compounds were studied by X-ray and neutron diffraction, measurements of thermodynamics and transport and theoretically. These included PrBaCo 2O 5+x and NdBaCo 2O 5+x, PrBaCo 2-xFexO 6- δ (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2) and LnBaCoFeO 6- δ (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd), Sr 3YCo 4O 10.5, YBaMn 2O 5+x. A 0.5A’ 0.5BO 3 (where A=Y, Sc, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm; A’= Sr, Ba; and B= Fe, Co, Mn, Ni), Ba 2In 2O 5, and La 1 xSr xCoO 3-δ /(La 1-ySry) 2CoO 4±δ interfaces.« less
  • Since the electrode reaction of SOFC is limited to the proximity of a triple phase boundary (TPB), the local current density at the electrode and electrolyte interface is larger than mean current density, which causes large ohmic and electrode polarization. This paper describes an application of mixed ionic-electronic conductors to reduce such polarization by means of (1) enhancing ionic conductivity of the electrolyte surface layer by coating a high ionic conductors, and (2) reducing the local current density by increasing the electrochemically active sites.
  • Following studies of the reactions of dimolybdenum hexaalyoxides with alkynes, nitriles, and carbon monoxide, great differences were found using tungsten analogues, reflecting tungsten's greater reducing power. The tungsten reactions provide the first homogeneous examples of the splitting of C triple bond O to carbide and oxide, and provide a model for heterogeneous catalytic processes believed to be the first and most critical step in Fischer-Tropsch chemistry. The chemical reactivity of carbido tungsten clusters is being studied. A series of mixed metal alkoxides of molybdenum and tungsten were prepared by alcoholysis reactions.
  • The authors have developed a novel method of gas separation based on electrolyte ionic membrane technology. Separation of one gas from another occurs through an ion-conducting membrane by the passage of selected ions. Most systems studied have focused on oxygen ion conduction for the separation of oxygen from air, although protonic and halide-conducting solid materials also exist. As an example of this system, this paper concentrates on a study of a membrane reactor used in the production of syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) from methane. The membrane material is a modified perovskite-type oxide exhibiting mixed (electronic/ionic) conductivity. Mixed-conductivity oxides aremore » promising materials for oxygen-permeating membranes that can operate without electrodes or external electrical circuitry. Extruded tubes of this material have been evaluated in a reactor operating at {approx} 850 C for partial oxidation of methane into syngas in the presence of a reforming catalyst. Separated oxygen on one side of the reactor wall was obtained from air on the other side. Methane conversion efficiencies of > 99% were observed, and some of the reactor tubes have been operated for > 1,000 h. Membrane tubes were fabricated from calcined powders by a plastic extrusion technique. Characterization of the mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of this material confirmed the stability exhibited in the reactor.« less